Aquatic Insects of Michigan

by Ethan Bright, Museum of Zoology Insect Division and School of Natural Resources and Environment
University of Michigan

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Syrphidae - Flower Flies, Hover Flies, Rattail Maggots

Flower, or hover, flies are a large group of flies with broad ecological diversity. Most species are terrestrial, with larvae feeding on decaying fungal or plant matter, but some are adapted as feeders of decaying organic matter in stagnant aquatic or semi-aquatic environments, and show remarkable physical adaptations to respiratory challenges. Some larvae have very long terminal repiratory siphons, giving them the moniker "rattails". Some groups also have terrestrial and even aquatic predatory forms. Adults are important pollinators of plants, and many show remarkable mimicry of bees and wasps. The systematics of the family are in flux, with currently four subfamilies recognized: Syrphinae, Microdontinae, Eristalinae and Pipizinae, the latter only recently being elevated (Mengual et al. 2015), and the Eristalinae likely being paraphyletic (Young et al. 2016).

Genera are denoted in green; species denoted in bold blue have been recorded in Michigan; species denoted in black bold are likely to occur in Michigan based on their known distribution with nearby state/provincial localities from which certified records have been published. You can use the Find function in your web browser to locate families, genera, and species. Synonomous species (indented) are listed below the current valid species (denoted in bold) with its taxonomic status indicated.

    Blera Billberg, 1820: 118 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Milesiini)
    [lentic-tree holes]
      Blera analis (Macquart, 1842: 139 as Milesia) - UMMZ, OConnor 1989
      Blera armillata (Osten Sacken, 1875: 59 as> Criorhina) - UMMZ, OConnor 1989 (as Cynorhina hunteri Curran)
        (syn.) Cynorhina hunteri Curran, 1925: 135
      Blera badia (Walker, 1849: 559 as Xylota) - UMMZ
        (syn.) Eristalis intersistens Walker, 1849: 615
      Blera confusa Johnson, 1913: 294 - UMMZ, OConnor 1989
      Blera nigra (Williston, 1887: 214 as Criorhina) - widespread
      Blera nigripes (Curran, 1925a: 128 as Cynorhina) - WI, widespread west
      Blera pictipes (Bigot, 1883: 354 as Caliprobola.) - UMMZ
      Blera umbratilis Williston, 1887: 212 as Criorhina) - NE-NY, NF

    Callicera Panzer, 1809: 17 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Callicerini)
    [lentic-tree holes - burrowers - collectors-gatherers - east]
      Callicera erratica (Walker, 1849: 543 as Chrysotoxum) - Thompson 1980
        (syn.) Callicera johnsoni Hunter, 1896: 87
        (syn.) Callicera johnsoni var. auripila Metcalf, 1916: 112
        (syn.) Callicera auripila Hull, 1947: 259

    Ceriana Rafinesque, 1815: 131 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Cerioidini)
    [lentic-tree holes]
      Ceriana abbreviata (Loew, 1864: 75 as Ceria) - ON, widespread

    Chalcosyrphus Curran, 1925: 122 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Milesiini)
    [lentic-tree holes - burrowerers - collectors-gatherers]
      Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) anthreas (Walker, 1849: 556 as Xylota) - Wirth et al. 1965: 606
        (syn.) Chrysogaster facialis Coquillett, 1910
      Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) chalybeus Wiedemann, 1830: 98MMZ
        (syn.) Syrphus violascens Megerle, 1803: 36
      Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) curvaria (Curran, 1941: 290 as Heliophilus)- UMMZ
      Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) flexus (Curran, 1941: 292 as Heliophilus) - widespread
      Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) inarmatus (Hunter, 1897: 142 as Brachypalpus) - widespread
        (syn.) Brachypalpus apicaudus Curran, 1922: 119
      Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) libo (Walker, 1849: 556 as Xylota) - UMMZ
        (syn.) Xylota marginalis Williston, 1887: 226
      Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) metallifera (Bigot, 1884: 545 as Xylota) - widespread
        (syn.) Brachypalpus rileyi Williston, 1887: 222
      Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) nemorum (Fabricius, 1805: 192 as Milesia) - UMMZ
        (syn.) Xylota baton Walker, 1849: 554
        (syn.) Xylota fraudulosa Loew, 1864: 71
        (syn.) Xylotomima americana Shannon, 1926: 21
      Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) piger (Fabricius, 1794: 295 as Syrphus) - UMMZ
        (syn.) Milesia haematodes Fabricius, 1805: 193
        (syn.) Xylota rubbiginigaster Bigot, 1884: 543
      Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) vecors (Osten Sacken, 1875: 69 as Xylota) - UMMZ, OConnor 1989

    Chrysogaster Meigen, 1803: 274 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Brachyopini)
    [lentic-littoral (pond margins and vascular hydrophytes) - burrowerers - collectors-gatherers]
      Chrysogaster antitheus Walker, 1849: 572 - UMMZ [as C. nigripes]
        (syn.) Chrysogaster nigripes Loew 1863: 307
        (syn.) Chrysogaster ustulata Loew, 1870: 175
        (syn.) Chrysogaster texana Shannon, 1916a: 108
        (syn.) Chrysogaster greeni Shannon, 1916b: 195
        (syn.) Chrysogaster ontario Curran, 1925a: 117
      Chrysogaster inflatifrons Shannon, 1916a: 107 - CT-OK

    Eristalinus Rondani, 1845: 453 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Eristalini)
    [lentic-littoral (sediments and detritus) - burrowers - collectors-gatherers]
      Eristalinus (Eristalinus) aeneus (Scopoli, 1763: 356 as Conops) - UMMZ; introduced species from Palearctic Region

    Eristalis Latreille, 1804: 194 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Eristalini)
    [lentic-littoral (sediments and detritus), lotic-depositional - burrowers, especially low O2 organic substrates - collectors-gatherers]
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) anthophorina (Fallén, 1817: 28 as Syrphus) - UMMZ
        (syn.) Eristalis bastardii Macquart, 1842: 95
        (syn.) Eristalis montanus Williston, 1882: 322
        (syn.) Eristalis mellisoids Hull, 1925: 16
        (syn.) Eristalis mellissoides Hull, 1925: 19
        (syn.) Eristalis occidentalis Williston, 1882: 322
        (syn.) Eristalis semimetallicus Macquart, 1850: 444
        (syn.) Eristalis nebulosus Walker, 1849: 616
        (syn.) Eristalis pterelas Harris, 1835: 598
        (syn.) Eristalis perplexus Hull, 1925: 22
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) arbustorum (Linnaeus, 1758: 591 as Musca) - UMMZ
        (syn.) Musca nemorum Linnaeus, 1758: 591
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) brousii Williston, 1882: 323 - UMMZ
        (syn.) Eristalis androclus, authors, not Walker
        (syn.) Eristalis meigenii, authors, not Wiedemann
      Eristalis (Eristalis) barda (Say, 1829: 163 as Milesia) - OConnor 1989
        (syn.) Eristalis flavipes Walker, 1849: 633
        (syn.) Eristalis melanostomus Loew, 1866: 173
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) cryptarum Fabricius, 1794: 285 - UMMZ
        (syn.) Eristalis compactus Walker, 1849: 619
        (syn.) Eristalis atriceps Loew, 1866: 169
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) dimidiatus Wiedemann, 1830: 180 - UMMZ
        (syn.) Eristalis niger Macquart, 1834: 505
        (syn.) Eristalis chalybeus Macquart, 1842: 115
        (syn.) Eristalis l'herminierii Macquart, 1842: 115
        (syn.) Eristalis inflexus Walker, 1849: 617
        (syn.) Eristalis incisuralis Macquart, 1850: 443
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) flavipes Walker, 1849: 633 - IN, MN, ON, widespread
        (syn.) Eristalis melanostomus Loew, 1866: 173
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) hirtus Loew, 1866: 170 - WI, widespread west
        (syn.) Eristalis temporalis Thomson, 1869: 490
        (syn.) Eristalis alpha Hull, 1925: 299
        (syn.) Eristalis beta Hull, 1925: 299
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) interrupta Poda, 1761: 118 - UMMZ
        (syn.) Eristalis inornatus Loew, 1866: 172
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) obscurus Loew, 1866: 171 - Wirth et al. 1965
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) oestracea (Linnaeus, 1758: 592 as Musca) - ON, widespread west
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) rupium Fabricius, 1805: 241 - UMMZ
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) saxorum Wiedemann, 1830: 158 - widespread
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) stipator Osten Sacken, 1877: 336 - UMMZ [as E. latifrons]
        (syn.) Eristalis latifrons var. maculipennis Townsend, 1897: 93
      Eristalis (Eristalis) tenax (Linnaeus, 1758: 591 as Musca) - UMMZ, cosmopolitian, non-native
        (syn.) Eristalis columbica Macquart, 1855: 108
      Eristalis (Eoseristalis) transversus Wiedemann, 1830: 188 - UMMZ
        (syn.) Eristalis vitttata Macquart, 1834: 507
        (syn.) Eristalis philadelphicus Macquart, 1842: 117
        (syn.) Eristalis pumilus Walker, 1842: 117
        (syn.) Eristalis zonatus Bigot, 1880: 217

    Helophilus Meigen, 1822: 368 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Eristalini)
    [lentic-littoral (detritus and organic sediments) - burrowers - collectors-gatherers]
      Helophilus (Helophilus) borealis Staeger, 1845: 359 - UMMZ
        (syn.) Helophilus glacialis Loew, 1846: 121
        (syn.) Helophilus dychei Hunter, 1897: 136
        (syn.) Helophilus bruesi Graenicher, 1910: 40
      Helophilus (Helophilus) fasciatus Walker, 1849: 605 - UMMZ
        (syn.) Helophilus similis Macquart, 1842: 124
        (syn.) Eristalis decisus Walker, 1849: 614
        (syn.) Helophilus susurrans Jaennicke, 1867: 402
      Helophilus (Helophilus) groenlandicus (Fabricius, 1780: 208 as Tabanus) - UMMZ
        (syn.) Helophilus bilineatus Curtis, 1835: 127
        (syn.) Helophilus latro Walker, 1849: 607
        (syn.) Helophilus androclus Walker, 1849: 612
        (syn.) Helophilus chalepus Walker, 1852: 247
        (syn.) Helophilus arcticus, authors, not Zetterstedt
      Helophilus (Helophilus) hybridus Loew, 1846: 141 - UMMZ
        (syn.) Helophilus novae scotiae Macquart, 1847: 76
        (syn.) Helophilus latitarsis Hunter, 1897: 134
      Helophilus (Helophilus) latifrons Loew, 1863: 313 - UMMZ
        (syn.) Helophilus trivittatus, authors, not Fabricius
      Helophilus (Helophilus) obscurus Loew, 1863: 314 - UMMZ
      Helophilus (Eurimyia) stipatus Walker, 1849: 602 - UMMZ
        (syn.) Helophilus anausis Walker, 1849: 603
        (syn.) Helophilus conostomus Williston, 1887: 193
        (syn.) Helophilus lineatus, authors, not Fabricius

    Lejops Róndani, 1857: 33 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Eristalini)
    [lentic-littoral (detritus and organic sediments) - burrowers - collectors-gatherers]
      Lejops (Anasimyia) bilinearis (Williston, 1887: 295 as Helophilus) - UMMZ
      Lejops (Anasimyia) chrysostomus (Wiedemann, 1830: 174 as Eristalis) - UMMZ (L. relictus Curran & Fluke)
        (syn.) Lejops relictus Curran & Fluke, 1926: 256 - UMMZ
      Lejops (Anasimyia) distinctus (Williston, 1887: 192 as Helophilus) - UMMZ
      Helophilus (Anasimyia) lunulatus (Meigen, 1822: 370 as Helophilus) - UMMZ
        (syn.) Helophilus hamatus Loew, 1863: 316

    Mallota Meigen, 1822: 377 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Eristalini)
    [lentic-tree holes - collectors-gatherers]
      Mallota (Mallota) albipilis Snow, 1895: 244 - IL, WI, midwest
        (syn.) Mallota illinoensis Robertson, 1901: 284
      Mallota (Mallota) bautias (Walker, 1849: 600 as Merodon) - UMMZ, OConnor 1989
        (nom. nud.) Mallota atrox Karsch, 1883: 172
        (syn.) Merodon bipartitus Walker, 1849: 599
        (syn.) Mallota cimbiciformis, authors, not Fallén
        (nom. nud.) Mallota cimbiciformis var. dentipes Lintner, 1883: 211
        (syn.) Mallota facialis Hunter, 1896: 100
        (syn.) Mallota flavoterminata Jones, 1917: 228
        (syn.) Merodon tudicornis Harris, 1835: 598
      Mallota (Mallota) posticata (Fabricius, 1805: 237 as Eristalis) - UMMZ, OConnor 1989
        (syn.) Eristalis coactus Wiedemann, 1830: 165
        (syn.) Merodon balanus Walker, 1849: 600
        (syn.) Milesia barda (in part), Say, 1829: 163

    Myolepta Newman, 1838: 373 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Brachyopini)
    [lentic-tree holes - collectors-gatherers]
      Myolepta (Myolepta) nigra Loew, 1872: 84 - UMMZ
      Myolepta (Myolepta) strigilata Loew, 1872: 85 - ON, WI, widspread
      Myolepta (Myolepta) varipes Loew, 1869: 174 - UMMZ

    Neoascia Williston, 1887: 111 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Brachyopini)
    [lentic-littoral (margins, marshes) - predators (engulfers)]
      Neoascia (Neoascia) distincta Williston, 1887: 112 - UMMZ
      Neoascia (Neoascia) globosa (Walker, 1849: 546 as Ascia) - UMMZ
      Neoascia (Neoascia) willistoni Thompson, 1986: - WI
        (syn.) Neoascia unifasciata Curran, 1925b: 55 - WI

    Orthonevra Macquart, 1829: 28 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Brachyopini)
    [lentic-tree holes (prev. treated as subgenus of Chrysogaster)]
      Orthonevra anniae (Sedman, 1966: 193 as Chrysogaster) - UMMZ
      Orthonevra nitida (Wiedemann, 1830: 116 as Chrysogaster) - UMMZ
        (syn.) Paragus aeneus Walker, 1849: 545
        (syn.) Cryptineura hieroglyphica Bigot, 1859: 308
      Orthonevra pictipennis Loew, 1863: 306 - UMMZ
        (comb.) Chrysogaster (Orthonerva) pictipennis (Lowe, 1863)
      Orthonevra pulchella (Williston, 1887: 35 as Chrysogaster) - UMMZ
      Orthonevra weemsi (Sedman, 1966: 189 as Chrysogaster) - UMMZ

    Parhelophilus Girschner 1897:604 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Eristalini)
    [lentic-littoral (detritus and organic sediments) - burrowers - collectors-gatherers]
      Parhelophilus (Lunomyia) brooksi Curran, 1927: 90
        (syn.) Lynomyia pollinaria Fluke, 1939: 373
      Parhelophilus divisus (Loew, 1863: 316 as Helophilus) - UMMZ, Wirth et al. 1965
      Parhelophilus laetus Loew, 1863: 315 as Helophilus) - UMMZ
      Parhelophilus obsoletus Loew, 1863: 314 as Helophilus) - UMMZ
      Parhelophilus porcus (Walker, 1849: 554 as Eumerus) - WI, widespread
      Parhelophilus rex Curran & Fluke, 1926: 234 - UMMZ

    Sericomyia Meigen, 1803: 274 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Eristalini)
    [lentic-littoral (bog mat pools) - collectors-gatherers]
      Sericomyia (Sericomyia) bifasciata Williston, 1887: 154 - Wirth et al. 1965
      Sericomyia chrysotoxoides Macquart, 1842: 79 - UMMZ
        (syn.) Sericomyia filia Walker, 1849: 596
        (syn.) Sericomyia limbipennis Macquart, 1847: 74
      Sericomyia (Sericomyia) lata (Coquillett, 1907: 75 as Condidea) - UMMZ
      Sericomyia (Sericomyia) militaris Walker, 1849: 595 - UMMZ
      Sericomyia (Sericomyia) sexfasciata Walker, 1849: 596 - ON, widespread north
      Sericomyia (Sericomyia) slossonae Walker, 1849: 596 - ON, widespread north
      Sericomyia (Sericomyia) transversa (Osburn, 1926: 51 as Condidea) - ON, widespread north
      Sericomyia (Sericomyia) vockerothi Skevington, in Skevington & Thompson 2012: 225 - widespread north

    Sphegina Meigen, 1822: 193 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Milesiini)
    [lentic-littoral (margins, marshes) - predators (engulfers)]
      Neoascia albipes (Bigot, 1884: 328 as Ascia) - Wirth et al. 1965

    Spilomyia Meigen, 1803: 273 (Subfamily Eristalinae, Tribe Milesiini)
    [lentic-tree holes]
      Spilomyia alcimus Walker, 1849: 563 - WI, ON, widespread east
      Spilomyia fusca Loew, 1864: 67 - UMMZ
      Spilomyia longicornis Loew, 1872: 82 - UMMZ
        (syn.) Spilomyia banksi Nayar and Cole, 1968: 211
      Spilomyia sayi (Goot, 1964: 219 as Paragus) - UMMZ
        (syn.) Paragus quadrifasciatus Say, 1824: 377
References - Distribution
    OConnor BM. 1989. Systematics, ecology and host associations of Naiadacarus (Acari: Acaridae) in the Great Lakes Region. The Great Lakes Entomologist 22(2):79-94.
    Skevington JH, Thompson FC. 2012. Review of New World Sericomyia (Diptera: Syrphidae), including description of a new species. The Canadian Entomologist 144: 216-247. PDF.
    Thompson FC. 2005. Syrphidae. Biosystematic Database of World Diptera, Version 7.5. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/Diptera/biosys.htm.1 record 12785725, accessed on 28 April 2006.
    Vockeroth JR. 1992. The flower flies of the subfamily Syrphinae of Canada, Alaska, and Greenland (Diptera: Syrphidae). The Insects and Arachnids of Canada 18 (1867). Research Branch Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. 456 pp. PDF.
    Wirth WW, Sedman YS, Weems Jr. HV. 1965. Syrphidae, pp. 557-625 in Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (eds.), A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.

References - Taxonomic

    Bigot JMF. 1880. Dipteres nouveaux ou peu connus. 14 partie, XXI: Syrphidi (mihi).-Genre Eristalis (Fabr.). Annales de la Société entomologique de France, Ser. 5, 10: 213-230.
    Bigot JMF. 1884. Dipteres nouveaux ou peu connus. 22e partie, XXXII: Syrphidi (2e partie). Especes nouvelles, No 1er. Annales de la Société entomologique de France (6) 3: 315-356.
    Billberg GJ. 1820. Enumeratio insectorum in Museo Gust. Joh. Billberg. 138 pp. [Stockholm].
    Coquillett DW. 1907. New genera and species of Diptera. The Canadian Entomologist 39: 75-76.
    Curran CH. 1922. New and little-known Canadian Syrphidae (Diptera). The Canadian Entomologist 54: 94-96, 117-119.
    Curran CH. 1925a. Contribution to a monograph of the American Syrphidae north of Mexico. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin (1924) 15: 7-216, 12 pls.
    Curran CH. 1925b. Revision of the genus Neoascia Williston (Diptera: Syrphidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 27: 51-62.
    Curran CH. 1927. Descriptions of Nearctic Diptera. The Canadian Entomologist 59: 79-92.
    Curran CH. 1941. New American Syrphidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 78: 243-304. PDF.
    Curran CH, Fluke CL, Jr. 1926. Revision of the Nearctic species of Helophilus and allied genera. Trans. Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 22: 207-281, 3 pls.
    Fabricii O. 1780. Fauna Groenlandica: systematice sistens animalia Groenlandiae occidentalis hactenus indagata, quoad nomen specificum, triuiale, vernaculumque : synonyma auctorum plurium, descriptionem, locum, victum, generationem, mores, vsum, capturamque singuli, prout detegendi occasio fuit. xvi + 452 pp., 1 plate. Ioannis Gottlob Rothe, Hafniae et Lipsiae [=Copenhagen & Leipzig]. VIEW.
    Fabricius JC. 1794. Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Vol. 4, [6] + 472 + [5] pp. C. G. Proft, Hafniae [=Copenhagen].
    Fabricius JC. 1805. Systema antliatorum secundum ordines, genera, species... xiv + 15-372 + [1] + 30 pp. C. Reichard, Brunsvigae [=Brunswick].
    Fallén CF. 1816-1817. Syrphici Sveciae, pp. 1-14 [1816.06.08], 15-22 [1816.06.08], 23-30 [1817.05.10], 31-42 [1817.05.20], 43-54 [1817.05.21], 55-62. [1817.05.22] Berlingianis, Lundae [= Lund].
    Fluke CL, Jr. 1939. New Syrphidae (Diptera) from Central and North America. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 32: 365-375, 1 pl.
    Goot VS, van der. 1964. Fluke's catalogue of Neotropical Syrphidae (Insects, Diptera), a critical study with an appendix on new names in Syrphidae. Beaufortia 10: 212-221.
    Girschner E. 1897. Über die Postalar-Membran (Schuppchen, Squamualae) der Dipteren. Illustrierte Wochenschrift für Entomologie 2: 534-539, 553-559, 567-571, 586-589, 603-607, 641-645, 666-670, 6 pls.
    Graenicher S. 1910. A preliminary list of the flies of Wisconsin belonging to the families Bombylidae, Syrphidae and Conopidae. Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History Society 8: 32-44. VIEW.
    Harris TW. 1835. VIII. Insects, pp. 553-602 in Hitchcock E., Report on the geology, mineralogy, botany, and zoology of Massachusetts, (2nd. ed.): 553-602.
    Hull FM. 1925. A review of the genus Eristalis Latreille in North America. [Part I]; Part II. Ohio Journal of Science 25: 11-45, 2 pls., [1925.01.27]; 285-312, 2 pls. [1925.11.23].
    Hull FM. 1947. The syrphid flies of Mississippi. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Science 2: 255-262.
    Hunter WD. 1896. A contribution to the knowledge of North American Syrphidae. I. The Canadian Entomologist 28: 87-101.
    Hunter WD. 1897. A contribution to the knowledge of North American Syrphidae. II. The Canadian Entomologist 29: 121-144, 1 pl.
    Jaennicke JF. 1867. Neue exotische Dipteren. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 6: 311-408, pls. 43-44. VIEW.
    Johnson CW. 1913. On the Criorhina intersistens Walker and an allied species (Dipt.). Entomological News 24: 293-295.
    Jones CR. 1917. New species of Colorado Syrphidae. Annals of the Entomological Society America 10: 219-231.
    Latreille PA. 1804. Tableau methodique des insectes, pp. 129-200 in Societe de Naturalistes et d'Agriculteurs, Nouveau dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle ... Tome 24. [Section 3]: Tableaux methodiques d'histoire naturelle. Deterville, Paris. 84 + 4 + 85 + 238 + 18 + 34 pp.
    Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 1–824. Holmiæ. (Salvius). VIEW.
    Lintner JA. 1883. Reports on the injurious and other insects of the State of New York. Rpt. 1: First annual report [for 18820, 381 pp. Albany, N.Y.
    Loew H. 1846. Helophilus. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 7: 116-127, 141-150, 164-169.
    Loew H. 1863. Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria quarta. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7: 275-326. VIEW.
    Loew H. 1864. Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria quinta. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 8: 49-104. VIEW.
    Loew H. 1866. Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria sexta. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 9: 127-186. PDF.
    Loew H. 1870. Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria nona. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift (1869) 13: 129-186. VIEW.
    Loew H. 1872. Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria decima. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 16: 49-124.
    Macquart PJM. 1829. Insectes diptères du nord de la France. Syrphies. Lille. "1827" 223 pp., 4 pls. VIEW.
    Macquart PJM. 1842. Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Tome deuxieme.--2e partie. Mémoires de la Société Royale des Sciences, de l'Agriculture et des Arts de Lille 1841(1): 65-200, 22 pls.
    Macquart PJM. 1847. Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. 2.e supplement. Roret, Paris. 104 pp, 6 pls.
    Macquart PJM. 1850. Diptères exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. 4e Supplement. Mémoires de la Société Royale des Sciences, de l'Agriculture et des Arts de Lille 1849: 309-479.
    Macquart PJM. 1855. Diptères exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. 5.e supplement. Mémoires de la Société Royale des Sciences, de l'Agriculture et des Arts de Lille (2) 1: 25-156, 7 pls.
    Meigen JW. 1803. Versuch einer neuen GattungsEintheilung der europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Magazin für insektenkunde (Illiger) 2: 259-281. VIEW.
    Meigen JW. 1822. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Dritter Theil. Schulz-Wundermann, Hamm. x + 416 pp., pls. 22-32. VIEW.
    Mengual X, Ståhls G, Rojo S. 2015. Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic ranking of pipizine flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) with implications for the evolution of aphidophagy. Cladistics 31(5):491–508.
    Metcalf CL. 1916. A list of Syrphidae of North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 32: 95-112.
    Megerle von Muhlfeld JC. 1803. Appendix ad catalogum insectorum, quae mense novembris MDCCII. Viennae austrae auctionis lege vendita fuere. 18 pp.
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Page edits:
    April 12, 2017
    • Corrections to nomenclatures and organization, splitting references into sections for distribution and taxonomy.

Page created: November 21, 2002 - Last update: May 19, 2017 (EB)