Aquatic Insects of Michigan

by Ethan Bright, Museum of Zoology Insect Division and School of Natural Resources and Environment
University of Michigan

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Thremmatidae (Uenoid Case-Maker Caddisflies) of Michigan - Identification

Introduction

This family was previously placed in the family Limnephilidae (Neophylacinae), but later work by Wiggins and others argued effectively for family elevation. Uenoidea comprises 7 genera of which 5 are found in the Nearctic, and 1 in Michigan. Neophylax is widespread and common in cold to cool lotic waters. Most literature has traditionally placed Neophylax in Uenoidae, following Wiggins' conservative view (Wiggins et al. 1985, Vineyard and Wiggins 1988), but recent work (Vshivkova et al. 2007) evidenced the placement of the genus in Thremmatidae.

Adults
(adapted from Schmid 1998, Vineyard 1990)

    1a < a. In males, inferior appendages not prominent, deeply embedded in Ab9
    Oligophlebodes minutus (Banks)
    b. In males, armature of Ab10 composed of 2 membranous lobes and 2 ear-shaped appendages
    c. In females, ventral lobes of Ab9 sternite fused together ventral to the vulvar scale, which is only slightly sclerotized
    1b a. In males, inferior appendages more or less prominent, not embedded in Ab9 Neophylax, 2
    b. In males, armature of Ab10 composed to 2-3 pairs of appendages
    c. In females, ventral lobes of Ab9 sternite fused with the lateral margins of the vulvar scale
     
    2a(1b) Maxillary palpi 3-sgemented (males) 3
    2b Maxillary palpi 5-segmented (females) 6
     
    3a(2a) Forewing dark brown or black, without white spots also: Tibial spurs 1,2,2 Neophylax fuscus Banks
    3b Forewing reddish brown, with a tan triangle or double-triangle pattern 4
    also: Metatibia with a medial apical spur < 1/3x length of tarsus, thickened basally with a promientn sclerotized shield; In lateral view, inferior appendage with rounded or pointed lateral lobe oriented caudally or ventrally, oriented horizontally or transversely in caudal view; In ventral view, Ab9 with posterior margin of sternum flat or convex
     
    4a(3b) Hindwing with R2+3 and R4+5 arising separately from R1
    Neophylax oligius Ross
    4b Hindwing with R2+3 fused from R1 to the base of the discoidal cell 5
     
    5a(4b) a. Ab10 with the internal branch separated caudally from the body of segment by less than 1/4 its length Neophylax aniqua Ross
    b. Ab10 with the external branch large in relation to the internal branch, in caudal view not produced as a free point, and extended ventrally only to the ventral margin of body of Ab10
    5b a. Ab10 with internal branch separated caudally from body of segment by more than 1/4 its length Neophylaxconcinnus McLachlan
    b. Ab10 with the external branch small in relation to the internal branch
    also: In ventral view, Ab9 sternum with its posterior margin convex or flat, in ventral view, not excavated laterally and its caudal margin evenly rounded or straight; In lateral view, inferior appendage with the lateral lobe extended caudad as far as the internal branch of Ab10; In dorsal and ventral aspects, lateral lobe of inferior appendage with a prominent median hook
     
    6a(2b) Forewing dark brown, without white spots
    Neophylax fuscus Banks
    6b Forewing reddish brown, with a light brown triangle or double-triangle pattern 7
    also: Lateral vulvar lobes never as heavily sclerotized points
     
    7a(6b) Lateral vulval lobes extended caudad farther than the median lobe, rounded laterally, terminating in broad triangular points
    Neophylax concinnus McLachlan
    also: Ab8 sternum with its posterior margin fused with Ab9 sternum
    7b Lateral vulval lobes shorter than the median lobe 8
     
    8a(7b) Lateral vulval lobes larger than the median lobes, rounded laterally
    Neophylax aniqua Ross
    also: Median vulval lobe produced as a pair of darkly sclerotized points; Apex of Ab10 with a wide V-shaped notch
    8b Lateral vulval lobes reduced, much smaller than the rounded and apically bifurcate median lobes, and produced as slightly convex sclerotized processes Neophylax oligius Ross
    also: Ab8 sternum narrowest posteriorly; Median vulval lobes with a shallow apical notch, with a conspicuous basomedian sclerotized point

Larvae
(adapted from Vineyard 1990, Wiggins 1996)

    1a a. Pronotum with prominent longitudinal ridges Oligophlebodes minutus (Banks)
    b. Anteromedian notch of mesonotum weakly represented
    c. Case of rock fragments, strongly tapered and cuved, outline smooth
    1b a. Pronotum lacking longitudinal ridges Neophylax, 2
    b. Anteromedian notch of mesonotum prominent
    c. Case of rock fragments, with larger balast stones along each side
     
    2a Ab1 with a ventral gill Neophylax oligius Ross
    also: Pronotum with short and needle-like spines along the anterior margin; Abdomen with dorsal gills present on some segments, posteroventral gills 2x long as other gills; Head usually dark, with a well-defined pale central stripe
    2b Ab1 without a ventral gill 3
     
    3a(2b) a. Pronotum with spines along the anterior margin long, prominent and blade-like Neophylax fuscus Banks
    b. Frontoclypeus without a tubercle
    also: Mesonotal scleroites appearing contiguous mesally; Metanotal sa1 sclerite present; Lateral gills present
    3b a. Pronotum with spines along the anterior margin small and fine 4
    b. Frontoclypeus usually with a prominent median elevation or tubercle
     
    4a(3b) a. Frontoclypeus depressed, with a long peg-like tubercle at least 2x high as its basal width Neophylax aniqua Ross
    b. Head usually dark
    4b a. Frontoclypeus usually with only a median elevation, occasionally a very short tubercle present Neophylax concinnus McLachlan
    b. Head light brown

References

    Vineyard RN. 1990. Systematics of the caddisfly genus Neophylax McLachlan (Trichoptera: Uenoidae). Ph.D dissertation, University of Toronto. 252 p.
    Vineyard RN, Wiggins GB. 1988. Further revision of the caddisfly family Uenoidae (Trichoptera): evidence for inclusion of Neophylacinae and Thremmatidae. Systematic Entomology 13: 361-372.
    Vshivkova TS, Morse JC, Ruiter D. 2007. Phylogeny of Limnephilidae and composition of the genus Limnephilus (Limnephilidae: Limnephilinae, Limnephilini), pp. 309-319 in Bueno-Soria, J., Barba-lvarez R, Armitage B (eds.), Proceedings of the XIIth International Symposium on Trichoptera, June 18-22, 2006. The Caddis Press, Columbus, Ohio.
    Wiggins GB. 1996. Larvae of the North American caddisfly genera (Trichoptera), 2nd Edition. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario. xiii + 457 p.
    Wiggins GB, Weaver JS, Unzicker JD. 1985. Revision of the caddisfly family Uenoidae (Trichoptera). The Canadian Entomologist 117: 763-800.

Page created: November 04, 2003 (EB) - Last updated: January 20, 2018 (EB)