Aquatic Insects of Michigan

by Ethan Bright, Museum of Zoology Insect Division and School of Natural Resources and Environment
University of Michigan

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Aquatic Diptera (True Flies) of Michigan

Except for families of flies of public health importance, or groups that have a certain ecological interest, our knowledge about the distribution of aquatic and semi-aquatic Diptera in Michigan (and elsewhere) is incomplete. This is no doubt due to the cornucopia of species in many families, sampling difficulties, and the state of current taxonomy. This is an on-going project in its initial phase: please contact the author to communicate information regarding additional verified species records and locations.

The following families are listed on this page: (Nematocera) - Axymyiidae, Blephariceridae, Chaoboridae, Corethrellidae, Dixidae, Psychodidae and Ptychopteridae; (Brachycera) - Athericidae, Empididae, Muscidae, Pelecorhynchidae, Phoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Scathophagidae. The following families retain their own separate pages: (Nematocera) - Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Simuliidae; (Brachycera) - Ephydridae, Sciomyzidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae, Tabanidae.

Genera are denoted in green; species denoted in bold blue have been recorded in Michigan; species denoted in black bold are likely to occur in Michigan based on their known distribution with nearby state/provincial localities from which certified records have been published. You can use the Find function in your web browser to locate a taxon or author of interest. Synonomous species (indented) are listed below the current valid species (denoted in bold) with its taxonomic status indicated.

Nematocera

    AXYMYIIDAE Shannon, 1921: 50 ("Wood-boring" midges)

    Axymyiid midges are a semi-aquatic, very small group of Holarctic nematoceran flies only 11 species in 4 genera. One species - Axymyia furcata - is found in eastern North America, ranging from Minnestoa and Iowa eastward into southern Canada and western Maine southward to western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia. Very little was known about these flies, and the fact that until recently virtually nothing was known about its larval ecology meant that records in museums were rare. Larvae bore through and construct chambers in woody logs submerged in streams, springs and seeps that begin to decompose. The adult stage is very short-lived, with adults possessing only vestigial mouthparts. Excellent summaries of the ecology, morphology and systematics of this group can be found in Mamayev & Krivosheyna 1966, Wihlm 2009, Wihlm & Courtney 2011, Sinclair 2013, and Schneeberg et al. 2013.

    [Photo: Tom Murray, 2008 (Creative Commons)].

      Axymyia McAtee, 1921: 49

        Axymyia furcata McAtee, 1921: 49 - IA, MN, OH, ON, east (Wihlm 2009, Wihlm & Courtney 2011), expect in southern LP

    References - Axymyiidae

      Mamayev BM, Krivosheyna NP. 1966. New data on the taxonomy and biology of the family Axymyiidae (Diptera). Entomological Reviews 45: 93-99.
      McAtee WL. 1921. Description of a new genus of Nemocera (Dipt.). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 23: 1-49.
      Rohdendorf BB. 1946. [The evolution of the wing and the phylogeny of Oligoneura (Diptera, Nematocera).] Trudy Paleontol. Inst. Akademie Nauk SSSR 13(2): 1-108, 16 pls. [1946.10.03] [In Russian, with English summary].
      Schneeberg K, Krause K, Beutel RG. 2013. The adult head of Axymyia furcata (Insecta: Diptera: Axymyiidae). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 71(2): 91-102.
      Shannon RC. 1921. Another anomalous dipteron added to the Rhyphidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 23: 50 – 51.
      Wihlm MW. 2009. The ecology, morphology, and phylogeography of the Nearctic species Axymyia furcata (Diptera: Axyyiidae). MS thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. 75 pp.
      Wihlm MW, Courtney GW. 2011. The distribution and life history of Axymyia furcata Mcatee (Diptera: Axymyiidae), a wood inhabiting, semi-aquatic fly. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 113(3): 385-398.

    BLEPHARICERIDAE Loew, 1862: 8 (Net-winged midges)

    Only one species of this family - Blepharicera tenuipes - has been collected in Michigan, from cold rapid streams located in the UP. These delicate flies are found in fast-moving, clean and cold streams. Larvae use ventral suckers to which they adhere to the surfaces of rocks, often near the water surface or even above in the splash zone. Adults, collected nearby the habitats of immature stages, resemble tipulids, and their common name "net-winged midges" refers to the light colored creases and folds of the wings. Species of the Blepharicera tenuipes-group have been reviewed by Courtney (2000) and Jacobsen (2010); an excellent web resource on the family is available by Gregory Courtney. [Photo right: Blepharicera sp. Image from U.S. EPA Biological Indicators of Watershed Health, courtesy of EcoAnalysts, Inc.). Note that Loew's 1861's mention (p. 88) of the family name in his work on amber did not specifically specify a type species, but his Monograph of the Diptera of North America, which appears as the first work to establish the family, was essentially finished in 1860, did not appear in print until 1862 (p. 8). Later Loew (1877: 58) recapitulated a chronology in the developing understanding of the group (at the time) and the establishment of the family name.

      Blepharicera Macquart, 1843: 61
        Blepharicera tenuipes (Walker, 1848: 86 as Asindulum)
          (syn.) Blepharocera capitata Loew, in Osten Sacken 1878: 17
          (syn.) Blepharicera Larva A, Hogue, 1978: 27

    References - Blephariceridae

      Courtney GW. 2000. Revision of the new-winged midges of the genus Blepharicera Macquart (Diptera: Belphariceridae) of eastern North America. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 23: 1-99.
      Hogue CL. 1987. Blephariceridae, in Griffiths GCD (ed.), Flies of the Nearctic Region 2(4): 1-172. E. Scweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.
      Jacobson AJ. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of the Nearctic Blepharicera Macquart (Diptera: Blephariceridae) with an emphasis on the eastern Blepharicera tenuipes group Hogue. " PhD diss., University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.
      Loew H. 1861. Über die Dipterenfauna des Bernsteins. Amtlicher Bericht über die Fünf und Dreissigste Versammlung Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte in Königsberg in Preussen im September 1860: 88-98.
      Loew H. 1862. Monographs of the Diptera of North America. Part 1. Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection 6(1): 1-221, fig. 1-3+1-12, 2 pls.
      Loew H. 1877. Revision der Blepharoceridae. Schlesische Zeitschrift für Entomologie, Neue Folge, Sechstes Heft, Breslau: 54-98, 1 pl.
      Macquart JM. 1843. Description d'un nouveau genre d'insectes dipteres. Annales de la Société entomologique de France 1: 59-63.
      Osten Sacken CR. 1878. Catalog of the described Diptera of North America. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 16: 1-276.
      Walker F. 1848. List of specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Volume 1. British Museum, London. 229 pp.

    CERATOPOGONIDAE Newman, 1834: 379 (No-See-Ums, Biting midges) (redirect to separate page)

    CHAOBORIDAE Newman, 1834: 379 (Phantom midges)
    (Key to the Michigan Chaoboridae)

    Closely related to Culicidae (mosquitoes) and Corethrellidae, although with non-biting adults, phantom midges are often an important constituent of mostly lentic habitats and slow-moving larger rivers. The larvae are predacious, with prehensile antennae that grasp crustacean, zooplankton or other invertebrate prey. Because of their importance in lentic and fisheries ecology, the bionomic role of various species of Chaoborus has been well studied. The larval body have hydrostatic gas-filled (from metabolism) organs that function to control buoyancy in the water column. This saves energy spent in vertical movement when pursuing prey. The larval body is transparent like glass, often only visible due to refraction from the hydrostatic organs. Heavily preyed upon by fish and other visual predators, larvae some speciesmove to darker depths to escape predation. During darker periods and night, the larvae move upwards to feed. Other species are apparently restricted to fishless habitats. Larvae of Eucorethra are restricted to small fishless woodland pools or slow-moving streams, often beneath tree roots by the sides of these habitats, feeding on invertebrates falling upon the water surface (Lake 1960). Larvae of Mochlonyx are found in both temporary and permanent pools. The review by Borkent (1981) remains a useful summary of the distribution of Chaoboridae in the Holarctic region. Adults are medium-sized flies that usually do not stray far from their larval habitat. They are slender, light yellow to greenish-brown, and range from 2-10 mm in length. Mouthparts, although with mandibles and maxillae present and homologous with Culicidae, lack structures for piercing. [Photos: adult, Janet Graham Chaoborus flavicans, Trawscoed, North Wales, Aug 2015 (Creative Commons); larvae, Rob Cruickshank, undated (Creative Commons)].

      Chaoborus Lichtenstein, 1800: 174 (Subfamily Chaoborinae, Tribe Chaoborini)
        Chaoborus (Sayomyia) albatus Johnson, 1921: 11 - Roth 1967: 66; Borkent 1981: 128 (fig. 12)
        Chaoborus (Chaoborus) americanus Johannsen, 1903: 395 as Corethra) - records at Cook-MSU; Roth 1967: 65; Borkent 1981: 125 (fig. 6)
          (syn.) Sayomyia hudsoni Felt, 1904: 371
          (syn.) Chaoborus crystallina Dyar & Shannon (nec De Geer), 1924: 210, pro parte.
          (comb.) Sayomyia americana (Joh.), Felt 1904: 368
        Chaoborus (Schadanophasma) cooki Sæther, 1970: 18 - MN, ON (expect in boreal woodland bogs and lakes in the UP)
          (syn.) Chaoborus nyblaei Cook (nec. Zetterstedt), 1956: 28, pro parte.
        Chaoborus (Chaoborus) flavicans (Meigen, 1830: 243 as Corethra) - records at Cook-MSU; Roth 1967: 65; Borkent 1981: 127 (fig. 8)
          (syn.) Corethra albipes Johannsen, 1903: 395
          (syn.) Sayoyia rotundifolia Felt, 1904: 366
          (syn.) Chaoborus plumicornis Wesenberg-Lund (nec. Fabricius) 1914: 8
          (syn.) Chaoborus crystallina Dyar & Shannon (nec De Geer), 1924: 210, pro parte.
          (syn.) Chaoborus eluthera Dyar & Shannon, 1924: 211
        Chaoborus (Sayomyia) punctipennis (Say, 1823: 16 as Corethra (orig.) - Eggleton 1931: 231; Roth 1967: 65; Borkent 1981: 128 (fig. 11)
          (syn.) Corethra appendiculata Herrick, 1884:11
          (comb.) Sayomyia punctipennis (Say), Felt 1904: 361
          (comb.) Chaoborus (Sayomyia) punctipennis (Say), Dyar & Shannon 1924: 213
        Chaoborus (Schadanophasma) trivittatus (Loew, 1862: 186 as Corethra) - Borkent 1979
          (comb.) Sayomyia trivittata Felt, 1904: 361
          (syn.) Corethra punctipennis Giles (nec Say), 1902: 502
          (syn.) Sayomyia knabi Dyar, 1905: 16
          (syn.) Chaoborus nyblaei Edwards (nec Zett.), 1932: 26, pro parte.
          (syn.) Chaoborus nyblaei Cook (nec Zett.), 1956: 28, pro parte.
          (syn.) Chaoborus brunskilli Sæther, 1970: 21

      Eucorethra Underwood, 1903: 182 (Subfamily Eucorethrinae)
        Eucorethra underwoodi Underwood, 1903: 182 - Borkent 1981: 124 (fig. 1)
          (syn.) Pelorempis americanus Johannsen, 1903: 403

      Mochlonyx Loew, 1844a: 121 (Subfamily Chaoborinae, Tribe Mochlonychini)
        Mochlonyx cinctipes (Coquillett, 1903: 190 as Corethra) - WI, northern widespread (Borkent 1981: 125, fig. 5); OH (O'Connor 1958)
          (syn.) Corethra cintipes var. obscura Dyar & Shannon, 1924: 208
        Mochlonyx velutinus (Ruthe, 1831: 1205 as Corethra) - Cook-MSU; Borkent 1981: 124 (fig. 3)
          (syn.) Tipula culiciformis De Geer, 1776:372
          (syn.) Corethra karnerensis Felt, 1904: 347
          (syn.) Corethra lintneri Felt, 1904: 353

    References - Chaoboridae

      Borkent A. 1979. Systematics and bionomics of the species of the subgenus Schadonophasma Dyar and Shannon (Chaoborus, Chaoboridae, Diptera). Quaestiones Entomologicae 15(2):122-255.
      Borkent A. 1981. The distribution and habitat preferences of the Chaoboridae (Culicomorpha: Diptera) of the Holarctic region. Canadian Journal of Zoology 59: 122-133.
      Cook EF. 1956. The Nearctic Chaoborinae (Diptera: Culicidae). Technical Bulletin of the Agriculture Experiment Station, University of Minnestoa 218: 1-102.
      Cook EF. 1965. Chaoboridae, pp. 102-105 in A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (Editors). Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
      Coquillett DW. 1903. Four new species of Culex. The Canadian Entomologist 35: 255-257.
      De Geer C. 1776. Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des insectes 6: viii + 523 pp. Stockholm.
      Dyar HG. 1905. Our present knowledge of North American corethrid larvae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 7: 13-16.
      Dyar HG., Shannon RC. 1924. The American Chaoborinae (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 12: 201-216.
      Edwards FW. 1932. Diptera. Family Culicidae. Genera Insectorum De Wytsman 194: 1-258.
      Eggleton FE. 1931. A limnological study of the profundal bottom fauna of certain fresh-water lakes. Ecological Monographs 1: 231-332.
      Felt EP. 1904. Mosquitoes or Culicidae of New York State. Bulletin of the New York State Museum 79: 239-400, 57 pls.
      Giles GM. 1902. A handbook of the genus or mosquiotes giving the anatomy and life history of the Culicidae. 2nd ed. John Bale, Sons and Danielsson, Ltd., London. 530 pp.
      Herrick A. 1884. A final report on the Crustacea of Minnesota included in the orders Cladocera and Copepoda. The Geological and Natural History Survery of Minnesota, Annual Report 12 (5): 1-191, 30 pls.
      Johannsen OA, 1903. Part 6. Aquatic Nematocerous Diptera, pp. 328-411 in Johannsen OA, Davis KC. (eds.), Aquatic insects of New York State. New York State University Bulletin 68 [=Ent. 18]: 197-517, 52 pls.
      Johnson CW. 1921. New species of Diptera. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 5: 11-17.
      Lake RW. 1960. Observations on the biology of Eucorethra underwoodi Underwood in Passaic County, New Jersey and Bristol County, Massachusetts. Moquito News 29(2): 171-174.
      Lichtenstein AAH. 1800. Beschreibung eines neu entdeckten Wasserinsekts. Arch. Zool. Zoot. 1(1): 168-175, 1 pl.
      Loew H. 1844. Beschreibung einiger neuer Gattungen der europäischen Dipterenfauna. Stettin Entomologische Zeitung 5: 114-130, 154-173, 2 pls.
      Loew H. 1862. Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria secunda. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 6: 185-232.
      Meigen JW. 1830. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. 6: 1-401 pp. Schulz, Hamm.
      Newman E. 1834. Attempted division of British insects into natural orders. Article XXXVII. Entomological Magazine 2: 379-430.
      O'Connor CT. 1958. The life history and economic importance of Mochlonyx cinctipes (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae). Ph.D. dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 89 pp.
      Roth JC. 1967. Notes on Chaoborus species from the Douglas Lake region, Michigan, with a key to their larvae (Diptera: Chaoboridae). Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 52: 63-68.
      Ruthe JR, von. 1831. Einige Bemerkungen und Nachträge zu Meigen's "Systematischer Beschreigung der europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten." Isis (Oken's) 1831: 1203-1222.
      Sæther OA. 1970. Nearctic and Palaearctic Chaoborus (Diptera: Chaoboridae). Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 174. vii + 57 p.
      Say T. 1823. Descriptions of dipterous insects of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia 3: 9-32.
      Underwood WL. 1903. A new mosquito. Science 18: 182-184.
      Wesenburg-Lund C. 1914. Bidrag til nogle Myggeslaetgters saerlig Mochlonyx og Corethra's Biologie. Mindeskrift Japetus Steenstrup Fødsel: 1-12.

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    CHIRONOMIDAE Newman, 1834: 397 (Non-biting midges) (redirect to separate page)

    CORETHRELLIDAE Edwards, 1932: 16 (Frog-biting midges)

    This widespread family of nemotocerous flies has not often been represented in collections, but the discovery of female blood-feeding on frogs has greatly improved our knowledge. Previously grouped with the Culicidae and then Chaoboridae, these midges have since 1986 been recogonized as a distinct family (Edwards 1932, Cook 1965, Wood and Borkent 1986, 1989).

    Larvae are found along the margins of aquatic habitats. Because female adults are attracted to the call of male frogs and feed on their blood, species are restricted to areas where there are frogs. There are no vouchered specimens of Corethrella from Michigan. Borkent's authoritative work (2008: 174) on Corethrella indicates two regional references, one from Wisconsin (Dickinson 1944) and another from Michigan (Rao and Rai 1990). Unfortunately, voucher specimens are not available, but if these are good records, based on existing distributions, these specimens may be either C. brakeleyi or C. condita (A. Borkent, pers.comm.).

      Corethrella Coquillett, 1902b: 191
        Corethrella (Corethrella) brakeleyi (Coquillett, 1902a: 85 as Corethra)
        Corethrella (Corethrella) condita Borkent, 2008: 177

    References - Corethrellidae

      Borkent A. 2008. The frog-biting midges of the world (Corethrellidae: Diptera). Zootaxa 1804: 1-456.
      Cook EF. 1956. The Nearctic Chaoborinae (Diptera: Culicidae). Technical Bulletin of the Agriculture Experiment Station, University of Minnestoa 218: 1-102.
      Cook EF. 1965. Family Chaoboridae, pp. 102-105 in Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR, A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. Agriculture Handbook 276, Washington, DC.
      Coquillett DW. 1902a. Three new species of Nemoatcerous Diptera. Entomological News 13: 84–85.
      Coquillett DW. 1902b. New forms of Culicidae from North America. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 10: 191–194.
      Edwards FW. 1932. Diptera family Culicidae. Genera Insectorum 194: 1–258.
      Wood DM, Borkent A. 1986. The phylogenetic relationships among families of Nematocera. In Abstracts of the First International Congress of Dipterology, Budapest, Aug. 17–24, 1986, pg. 262.
      Wood DM, Borkent A. 1989. Phylogeny and classification of the Nematocera. Chapter 114, pp. 1333-1370 in McAlpine JF, Wood DM (eds.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Volume 3. Agriculture Canada Monograph 32, Ottawa.

    CULICIDAE Meigen, 1818: xxxiii (Mosquitoes) (redirect to separate page)
    (Key to the Culicidae of Michigan)

    DIXIDAE Schiner, 1868: 48 (Dixid midges, Meniscus midges)
    (Key to the Dixidae of Michigan)

    Dixid midges are a small group of about 175 world-wide in about 7 genera. They are slender flies that are found nearby in the aquatic habitats from which their immature stages develop. Eggs are laid in water near an emergent object where they adhere by water tension (). Immatures of Dixa tend to be rheophilic, usually near the channel edge where flow is low, whereas those of Dixella are more often sampled from slow-moving to still backwater lotic habitats as well as a range of lentic habitats such as wetlands of varying pH, ponds and lakes. Larvae, which superficially look like mosquito immatures, spend their time at the air-water interface, and use a caudal respiratory structure to breath air. Resting larvae form a inverted U-shape, which gives them the moniker of "meniscus" midges. Larvae use their mouthpart brushes to rapidly collect small microorganisms as well as decayed organic matter from the waters surface. Males form mating swarms nearby by habitat where females oviposit. Reviews of this group are in Wesenberg-Lund 1943, Hubert 1965 and Peters 1981. Life cycle of Norwegian species of Dixella were studied by Håland (2009). Methods on the collection and rearing of immature stages were described by Wagner et al. (1992).

    This is a preliminary list of species based on records at UMMZ-Insect Division, Ann Arbor, Michigan, and the A. J. Cook Arthropod Research Collection, MSU, East Lansing, Michigan, as well as information in Hubert (1965) and Peters and Cook (1966).

      Dixa Meigen, 1818*: 216
        Dixa modesta Johannsen, 1903*: 429 - widespread
          (syn.) Dixa similis Johannsen 1923*: 57 (Moulton 2017)

      Dixella Dyar and Shannon, 1924*: 200
        Dixella cornuta Johannsen, 1923*: 55 - Cook Museum, MSU
        Dixella fraxina Taber, 2010*: 295 - Cook Museum, MSU
        Dixella indiana Dyar, 1925*: 217 - IN (Dyar 1925: 217-218)
        Dixella nova Walker, 1848*: 85

    References - Dixidae
      Dyar HG. 1925. A new North American Dixa and note (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 13: 217-218.
      Dyar HG, Shannon RC. 1924. Some new species of American Dixa Meigen (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 9: 193-201.
      Hubert AA. 1965. Dixidae, pp. 100-102 in Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (eds.), A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
      Johannsen OA. 1903. Part 6. Aquatic Nematocerous Diptera. New York State University Bulletin 68 (Entomology 18): 328-441.
      Johannsen OA. 1923. North American Dixidae. Pyche 30: 52-58, 1 pl.
      Håland Ø. 2009. Notes on the life cycles of Norwegian Dixella species (Diptera, Nematocera, Dixidae). Norwegian Journal of Entomology 56: 37–43.
      Meigen JG. 1818. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Erster Teil, Aachen. xxxvi + 332 pp.
      Moulton JK. 2017. The true identity of Dixa modesta Johannsen (Diptera: Dixidae) resolved: synonymy of Dixa similis Johannsen, designation of the Dixa ubiquita species group, and description of three new eastern Nearctic species. Zootaxa 4216.3: 247-260.
      Peters TM. 1981. Dixidae, pp. 329-333 in McAlpine JF, Wood DM (eds.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Volume 3. Agriculture Canada Monograph 32, Ottawa.
      Peters TM, Cook EF. 1966. The Nearctic Dixidae (Diptera). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America 5: 231-78.
      Schiner IR. 1868. Diptera, pp. 1-388 in Von Wullerstorf-Urbair B. (ed.), Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara. Zoologie, 2(1). B.K. Gerold’s Sohn, Wien.
      Taber SW. 2010. New species of Dixella Dyar & Shannon meniscus midge (Diptera: Dixidae). Southwestern Entomologist 35(3): 295-307.
      Wagner R, Freidberg A, Ortal R. 1992. The Dixidae (Diptera: Nematocera) of Israel and Egypt, with a new record from Greece. Israel Journal of Entomology 25-26: 163-176.
      Walker F. 1848. List of specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Volume 1. British Museum, London. 229 pp.
      Wesenberg-Lund C. 1943. Biologie der Süsswasserinsekten. Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag, and Verlag J. Springer. Berlin and Vienna. xiii + 682 pp.

    PSYCHODIDAE Newman, 1834: 338 (Moth flies)

    This family of about 2,900 species in six subfamilies is largely tropical, with only about 30 species in 8 genera (Psychodinae) reaching our region. Larvae of aquatic species, which are generally collector-gatherers, are found in moist sediments or organic detritus at the edge of lotic and lentic waters, or in protected substrates such as sand, moss or other microhabitats with little moving water to dislodge the organism.

    Some species have immatures stages associated with sewage or drain systems of human habitats, and one may frequently see the delicate, moth-like adult flies in or nearby restrooms or cleaning facilities. Because of adults of the subfamily Phlebotomine (sand flies) are associated with the transmission of various diseases, such as bartonellosis, leishmaniasis and several viruses, their biology has been well studied. The aquatic to semi-terrestrial species of our species are in the subfamily Psychodinae, which, aside from sometimes being a nuisance around human habitation, are not implicated as a vector of any disease. Photo of adult by Sanjay Acharya 2009 (CCASA 3.0), larvae right by Erin Hayes-Pontius 2012 (CCASA 3.0).

    Systematics of this group are being revised, as molecular methods evidence that earlier classifications based on morphology alone have polyphyletic groupings (Espinoda et al. 2011).

      Clytocerus Eaton, 1904: 59
        Clytocerus (Boreoclytocerus) americanus (Kincaid, 1901: 194 as Pericoma ocellaris var. americana) - UMMZ
          (syn.) Pericoma interrupta Banks, 1906: 150
          (syn.) Pericoma americana Dyar, 1927: 163
          (syn.) Pericoma satellitia Dyar, 1927: 163

      Pericoma Walker, 1856a: 256
        Pericoma (Pericoma) kincaidi (Quate, 1955: 141 as Psychoda)
        Pericoma (Pericoma) marginalis (Banks, 1894: 333 as Psychoda)
        Pericoma (Pericoma) scotiae (Curran, 1924: 216 as Psychoda) - NS-AB
        Pericoma (Pericoma) signata (Banks, 1901: 274 as Psychoda) - LB-MN
        Pericoma (Pericoma) slossosonae (Williston, 1893: 113 as Psychoda)

      Perithreticus Vaillant, 1973: 355
        Perithreticus jonesi (Quate, 1955: 231 as Psychoda) - WI, east (Quate 1965: 95)

      Philosepedon Eaton, 1904: 57
        Philosepedon interdicta (Dyar, 1928: 88 as Psychoda) - NY-WI (Quate 1965: 95)

      Psychoda Latreille, 1796: 152
        Psychoda alternata Say, 1824: 358
          (syn.) Psychoda tripunctata Macquart, 1838
          (syn.) Psychoda sexpunctata Phillipi, 1865
          (syn.) Psychoda conspicillata Hutton, 1881
          (syn.) Psychoda schizura Kincaid, 1899: 32
          (syn.) Psychoda floridica Haseman, 1907: 316
          (syn.) Psychoda nocturnala Haseman, 1907: 319
          (syn.) Psychoda bengalensis Brunetti, 1908
          (syn.) Psychoda albimaculata Welch, 1912: 411
          (syn.) Psychoda dakotensis Dyar, 1926b: 108
          (syn.) Psychoda alternata var. marmosa Abreau, 1930
          (syn.) Psychoda alternata var. floridica Johannsen, 1934
          (syn.) Psychoda septempunctata Rapp, 1945
        Psychoda cinerea Banks, 1894: 331 - ON, widespread (Quate 1965: 96)
          (syn.) Threticus compar Eaton, 1904
          (syn.) Psychoda compar Tonnoir, 1919
          (syn.) Psychoda prudens Curran, 1924: 219
          (syn.) Psychoda domestica Haseman, 1908: 285
        Psychoda lativentris Berden, 1952: 111 - widespread (Quate 1965: 96)
        Psychoda minuta Banks, 1894: 331 - ME-MN (Quate 1965: 96)
          (syn.) Psychoda marylandana del Rosario 1936: 111
          (syn.) Psychoda spreta Tonnoir 1940
        Psychoda phalaenoides (Linnaeus, 1758: 588 as Tipula) - northern, widespread
          (syn.) Psychoda pacifica Kincaid 1897: 143
          (syn.) Psychoda horizontala Haseman 1907: 313
          (syn.) Psychoda tonnoiri Dyar 1926a: 103
          (syn.) Psychoda angustafona Rapp 1944: 233
          (syn.) Pericoma pacifica Enderlein 1937
        Psychoda pusilla Tonnoir, 1922: 83 - NY-WA (Quate 1965: 96)
        Psychoda satchelli Quate, 1955: 214 - ON (Quate 1965: 96)
        Psychoda setigera Tonnoir, 1922: 22 - MN, ON, holarctic (Quate 1965: 96)
        Psychoda trinodulosa Tonnoir, 1922: 86 - MN, WI (Quate 1965: 96)
        Psychoda umbracola Quate, 1955: 201 - MN, WI (Quate 1965: 96)
        Psychoda uniformata Haseman, 1907: 319 - ON, UT-NY (Quate 1965: 96)

      Telmatoscopus Eaton, 1904: 58
        Telmatoscopus furcatus (Kincaid, 1899: 34 as Pericoma) - UMMZ collection; AK-FL (Quate 1965: 94)
          (syn.) Psychoda trialbawhorla Haseman, 1907: 306
          (syn.) Psychoda annulipes Johnson, 1913: 43
          (syn.) Psychoda autumnalis Banks, 1914: 127
          (syn.) Psychoda aldrichanus Dyar, 1926b: 107
          (syn.) Psychoda littoralis Dyar, 1926b: 107
        Telmatoscopus latipenis Quate, 1960: 144 - WI
        Telmatoscopus nebraskensis Quate, 1955: 163 - Quate, 1965: 94
        Telmatoscopus niger (Banks, 1894: 331 as Psychoda) - IN, NY, MN
          (syn.) Psychoda snowhilli Del Rosario, 1936: 140
        Telmatoscopus varitarsis (Curran, 1924: 220 as Psychoda) - Quate 1965: 94
          (syn.) Psychoda juno Curran, 1926: 228

      Threticus Eaton, 1904: 57
        Threticus bicolor (Banks, 1894: 333 as Psychoda) - Quate 1965: 95; NY-WI

    References - Psychodidae

      Banks N. 1894. Some Psychodidae from Long Island, N.Y. The Canadian Entomologist 26: 329-333.
      Banks N. 1901. The eastern species of Psychoda. The Canadian Entomologist 33: 273-275.
      Banks N. 1906. The Psychodidae of the vicinity of Washington. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 8: 148-151.
      Banks N. 1914. Two new species of Psychoda. Entomological News 25: 127-128.
      Berdén S. 1952. Taxonomical notes on Psychodidae (Dipt. Nem.). 1. Psychoda lativentris n. sp., a species hitherto confused with alternata Say. Opuscula Entomologica 17: 110-113, 6 figs.
      Curran CH. 1924. Some apparently new Canadian Psychodidae (Dipt.). The Canadian Entomologist 56: 215-220.
      Curran CH. 1926. Two new Canadian Psychodidae (Dipt.). The Canadian Entomologist 58: 228-229.
      Del Rosario F. 1936. The American species of Psychoda (Diptera: Psychodidae). Philippine Journal of Science 59: 85-148, 1 fig., 6 pls.
      Dyar HG. 1925. A new North American Dixa and note (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 13: 217-218.
      Dyar HG. 1926a. Three psychodids from the Glacier National Park (Diptera, Psychodidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 14: 103-106. 1 pl.
      Dyar HG. 1926b. Some apparently new American psychodids (Diptera, Psychodidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 14: 107-111.
      Dyar HG. 1927. American Psychodidae -I (Diptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 29: 162-164, 6 figs.
      Dyar HG. 1928. American Psychodidae -II (Diptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 30: 87-89, 1 pl.
      Eaton AE. 1904. New genera of European Psychodidae. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 40: 55–59.
      Enderlein G. 1937. Klassifikation der Psychodiden (Dipt.). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1936: 81-112, 1 fig.
      Espíndola A, Buerki S, Jacquier A, Ježek J, Alvarez N. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships in the subfamily Psychodinae (Diptera, Psychodidae). Zoologica Scripta 41(5): 489-498.
      Haseman L. 1907. A monograph of the North American Psychodidae including ten new species and an aquatic pscyhodid from Florida. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 33: 299-333, pls. 5-8.
      Haseman L. 1908. Notes on the Psychodidae. Entomological News 19: 274-285, 2 figs.
      Johnson CW. 1913. Insects of Florida. I. Diptera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 32: 37-90.
      Kincaid T. 1897. The Psychodidae of Washington. Entomological News 8: 143-146.
      Kincaid T. 1899. The Psychodidae of the Pacific Coast. Entomological News 10: 30-36, 13 figs.
      Kincaid T. 1901. Notes on American Psychodidae. Entomological News 12: 193–196.
      Newman E. 1834. Attempted division of British insects into natural orders. Article XXXVII. Entomological Magazine 2: 379-430.
      Oscoz J, Galicia D, Miranda R. 2011. Identification guide of freshwater macroinvertebrates of Spain. Springer Verlag, Dordrecht, Germany.
      Latreille PA. 1796. Précis des caractères génériques des insectes, disposés dans un ordre naturel. Prèvôt, Bordeaux. VIEW.
      Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 1–824. Holmiæ. (Salvius). VIEW.
      Macquart J. 1838. Diptères exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Mémoires de la Société Royale des Sciences, de l'Agriculture et des Arts de Lille 1838 (2): 9-225, 25 pls.
      Philippi RA. 1865. Aufzählung der chilenischen Diptera. Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königliche Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft in Wien 15: 595–782, 7 pls.
      Quate LW. 1955. A revision of the Psychodidae (Diptera) in America North of Mexico. University of California Publications in Entomology 10: 103–273.
      Quate LW. 1960. New species and record of nearctic Psychodidae (Diptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 36: 143-149, 2 figs.
      Quate LW. 1965. Family Psychodidae, pp. 91-97 in A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR (ed), Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
      Rapp WF, Jr. 1944. A new species of Psychoda from New York (Psychodidae, Diptera). Entomological News 55: 232-233, 1 fig.
      Say T. 1824. Appendix. Part I.-Natural History. 1. Zoology. E. Class Insecta. Pp. 268-378. In Keating, W. H., Major Long's second expedition. Vol. 2, 459 pp., pls. 6-15. Philadelphia.
      Tonnoir AL. 1922. Synopsis des espèces européennes du genre Psychoda (Diptères). Annales de la Societé Entomologie de Belgique 62: 49–88.
      Vaillant F. 1973. Some new Psychodidae Psychodinae from the United States (Diptera). Annales de la Société Entomologie de France, Nouvelle Série 9: 345–379.
      Walker F. 1856. Diptera. Vol. 3. [Vol. 4], xxiv + 352 pp., pls. 21-30 in Walker F, Stainton HT, Wilkinson SJ, Insecta Britannica [q.v.]. London.
      Welch PS. 1912. Observations on the life history of a new species of Psychoda. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 5: 411-418, 2 pls.
      Williston SW. 1893. The North American Psychodidae. Entomological News and Proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4: 113-114.

    PTYCHOPTERIDAE Osten-Sacken, 1862: 12 (Phantom crane flies)
    (Key to the Ptychopteridae of Michigan)

    These are large, dark and interesting flies that resemble tipulid crane flies. Larvae are found in fine organic substrates or mud in stagnant or slowly moving water of seeps and wetlands. Larvae and pupae use a siphon tube for air exchange. The term "phantom" cranes refers to their similarity to larger tipulid crane flies, but, when in flight, are difficult to see their dark bodies save for their white-banded legs that are typically held straight out from the body. Older literature references this family as Liriopeidae Meigen, 1800, which was suppressed by the ICZN in Opinion 678 in 1963.

      Ptychoptera Meigen, 1803: 262 (Subfamily Ptychopterinae)
        Ptychoptera metallica Walker, 1848: 80 - ON, MN, AB-NY (Byers 1979: 611)
        Ptychoptera quadrifasciata Say, 1824 - Cook-MSU; Rogers 1942: 58 (as P. rufocincta)
          (syn.) Ptychoptera rufocincta Osten Sacken, 1859: 252

      Bittacomorphella Alexander, 1916: 545 (Subfamily Bittacomorphinae)
        Bittacomorphella (Bittacomorphella) jonesi (Johnson, 1905: 75 as Bittacomorpha) - Alexander 1965: 98; UMMZ (Gogebic Co., Cheboygan Co., Lake Co., Washtenaw Co.)

      Bittacomorpha Westwood, 1835: 281 (Subfamily Bittacomorphinae)
        Bittacomorpha clavipes (Fabricius, 1781: 404 as Tipula) - Rogers 1942: 58; UMMZ (Washtenaw Co., Gogebic Co., Berrien Co.)

    References - Ptychopteridae

      Alexander CP. 1916. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Ptychopteridae, Diptera. Part 3. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia 68: 486-549, 7 pls.
      Alexander CP. 1965. Ptychopteridae, pp. 97-98 in A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR (ed), Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
      Johnson CW. 1905. Synopsis of the tipulid genus Bittacomorpha. Psyche 12: 75-76.
      Fabricius JC. 1781. Species insectorum exhibentes eorum differentias specificas, synonyma, auctorum, loca natalia, metamorphosin. Vol. 2, 517 pp. Hamburgi et Kilonii [=Hamburg and Kiel].
      Say T. 1823. Descriptions of dipterous insects of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia 3: 9-54, 73-104.
      Byers GW. Summer crane flies of Lake Itasca vicinity, Minnesota. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 51(20): 603-613.
      Meigen JW. 1803. Versuch einer neuen GattungsEintheilung der europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Magazin für Insektenkunde (Illiger) 2: 259-281. VIEW.
      Osten Sacken CR. 1859. New genera and species of North American Tipulidae with short palpi, with an attempt at a new classification of the tribe. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia 1859: 197-256, 1 fig., 2 pls.
      Osten Sacken CR. 1862. Monographs of the Diptera of North America. Smithsonian Miscellaneious Collections 6(1): 1-221, fig. 1-3+1-12, 2 pls. [OS note in Loew's 1862 Monograph].
      Rogers JS. 1942. The Crane Flies (Tipulidae) of the George Reserve, Michigan. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 53: 129 pp., 8 pl. PDF.
      Walker F. 1848. List of specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Volume 1. British Museum, London. 229 pp.
      Westwood JO. 1835. Insectorum nonnullorum exoticorum (ex ordine Dipterorum) descriptiones. London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine (3) 6: 447-449.

    SIMULIIDAE Newman, 1834 (Black flies, Buffalo Gnats) (redirect to separate page)

    TIPULIDAE sensu lato (Tipuloidea) (Crane Flies) (redirect to separate page)

Brachycera

    ATHERICIDAE Stuckenberg 1973: 649 (Water snipe flies)
    (Key to the Athericidae of Michigan)

    This family was erected by Stuckenberg (1973) for species in 7 genera formerly placed in the family Rhagionidae, including three aquatic species in the genus Atherix. Species of Nearctic Athericidae were reviewed by Webb (1977), with one record for A. lantha from Ann Arbor, and A. variegata is widespread in central and northern Michigan. [Photo: larva of A. lantha, Iron Creek, Washtenaw Co., ©Ethan Bright; adult female of A. lantha, ©Donald Chandler, Grafton Co. NH / Discoverlife.org]

      Atherix Meigen, 1803: 271
        Atherix lantha Webb, 1977: 486
        Atherix variegata Walker, 1848: 218 - Webb 1977; Kovalak 1978: 10

    References - Athericidae

      Kovalak WP. 1978. Diel changes in stgream benthos density on stones and artificial substrates. Hydrobiologia 58(1): 7-16.
      Meigen JG. 1803. Versuch einer neuen Gattungseinteilung der europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Illigers Magazine für Insektfunde, pp. 259-281.
      Stuckenberg BR. 1973. The Athericidae, a new family in the lower Brachycera (Diptera). Annals of the Natal Museum 21(3): 649-673.
      Walker F. 1848. List of the specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part 1: 1-229. London.
      Webb DW. 1977. The Nearctic Athericidae (Insecta: Diptera). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 50(4): 473-495.

    DOLICHIPODIDAE Latreille, 1809 (Long-legged flies) (redirect to separate page)

    EMPIDIDAE Latreille, 1809: 189, 191 - Dance flies

    Records are based on a survey of material at UMMZ-Insect Division collection, literature records, and information provided by Dr. Bradley Sinclair. Ecological information is from Courtney & Merritt 2007.

    Genera are denoted in green; species denoted in bold blue have been recorded in Michigan; species denoted in black bold are likely to occur in Michigan based on their known distribution with nearby state/provincial localities from which certified records have been published. You can use the Find function in your web browser to locate families, genera, and species. Synonomous species (indented) are listed below the current valid species (denoted in bold) with its taxonomic status indicated. [Photo of Rhamphomyia adult from California (copyright 2005 Hartmut Wisch - used by permission].

      Chelifera Macquart, 1823: 150 (Hemerodromiinae, Hemerodromiini)
      Lotic-depositional, lentic-littoral (bogs) - sprawlers, burrowers
        Chelifera obsoleta (Loew, 1862: 208 as Hemerodromia) - MacDonald 1994: 264, 269 (fig. 36)
        Chelifera palloris (Coquillett, 1895: 392 as Mantipeza) - MacDonald 1994: 266, 269 (fig. 36)
        Chelifera subnotata MacDonald, 1994: 271 - NY, may be strictly Appalachian

      Chelipoda Macquart, 1823: 148 (Hemerodromiinae, Chelipodini)
        Chelipoda contracta Melander, 1947: 265 - MacDonald 1993: 335; UMMZ (Washtenaw Co.: Ann Arbor, G. Steyskal, 1936; H.D. Cameron, 1979; Lapeer Co.: Deerfield Twp., G. Steyskal, 1937)
        Chelipoda elongata (Melander, 1902: 232 as Litanomyia) - MacDonald 1993: 338
        Chelipoda truncata MacDonald, 1993: 347 - MN, ON, WI, south to GA (MacDonald 1993: 347-348)

      Clinocera Meigen, 1803: 271 (Clinocerinae)
      Lotic-erosional, lentic-littoral (bogs) - clingers
        Clinocera binotata Loew, 1876: 325 - record from Hillsdale Co., 21.v.1960, R.R. & K. Dreisbach (Sinclair 2008)
        Clinocera brunnea Sinclair, 2008: 30 - Sinclair 2008 (1m, Alger Co., Munising, Alger Falls, 9.ix.1982, R. Hurley)
          (syn.) Clinocera sp. Landry & Harper, 1985: 1381
        Clinocera fuscipennis Loew, 1876: 324 - IN, ON, WI, widely distributed
          (syn.) Clinocera brevitibia Melander, 1928: 235
        Clinocera lineata Loew, 1862: 207 - UMMZ (Livingston Co.: Hamburg, G. Steyskal, 1935), IN, MN, ON (Record from Lambton Co., near Arkona, is very close to Michigan)(Sinclair 2008), Holarctic distribution
        Clinocera maculata Loew, 1860: 79 - Alger Co., Alger Falls, Munising, 9.ix.l992, RH (HSU); Montmorency Co., Hunt Ck, 15.ii.1941, J.W. Leonard (USNM) (Sinclair 2008)
        Clinocera stagnalis (Haliday, 1833: 159 as Heleodromia) - Keweenaw Co., Isle Royale, 9.vii.1938, George C. Steyskal (USNM) (Sinclair 2008)
          (syn.) Brachystoma westermanni Zetterstedt, 1838: 558 (syn.) Clinocera genualis Coquillett, 1910: 124

      Dolichocephala Macquart, 1823: 147 (Clinocerinae)
      Lotic-erosional - clingers
        Previous Nearctic records of Dolichocephala irrorata (Fallén, 1815) are based on misidentifications (Sinclair and MacDonald, 2012: 62, 72 (fig. 72)). Dolichocephala argus Melander, 1928: 246 - ON, NS-BC-CA (Sinclair and MacDonald 2012: 66-67)
        Dolichocephala vockerothi Sinclair & MacDonald, 2012: 75 - Cheboygan Co., Sturgeon R. at Rondo [45.3168°N,-84.6225°W], 7.vii.1987, R. Hurley (1 #, MTEC); Marquette Co., 15mi SW Big Bay, 22–26.vi.1986, malaise trap, John F. MacDonald (1 ~, CNC) (Sinclair and MacDonald, 2012: 77); based on record in Lambton Co., ON, expect this species in southern Michigan as well.

      Hemerodromia Meigen, 1822: 61 (Hemerodromiinae, Hemerodromiini)
      Lotic-erosional and depositional, (detritus) - sprawlers, burrowers - predators (piercers)
        Hemerodromia captus Coquillett, 1895: 391 - UMMZ (Huron Co.: G. Steyskal, 1936); MacDonald 1998: 800, 801 (Fig. 25)
        Hemerodromia empiformis (Say, 1823: 99 as Ochthera) - UMMZ (Livingston Co.: Hamburg, G. Steyskal, 1936); ON, IN, MN, WI (MacDonald 1998: 806, 816 (Fig. 30))
        Hemerodromia melanosoma Melander, 1947: 250 - MacDonald 1998: 808 (Fig. 27), 812
          (syn.) Hemerodromia haruspex Melander, 1947: 249
        Hemerodromia oratoria (Fallén, 1816: 34 as Tachydromia) - MacDonald 1998: 804 (Fig. 26), 814
        Hemerodromia sufflexa Melander, 1947: 248 (as H. empiformis var. sufflexa) - IL, IN, MN, ON, NY (MacDonald 1998: 813 (Fig. 29), 819)
        Hemerodromia superstitiosa Say, 1824: 376 - MacDonald 1998: 804 (Fig. 26), 820)
          (syn.) Hemerodromia vittata Loew, 1862: 210
          (syn.) Hemerodromia rogatoris Coquillett, 1895: 392
        Hemerodromia vates Melander, 1947: 252 - IN, east (MacDonald 1998: 810 (Fig. 28), southern but extends to Lafayette, IN, may be encountered in extreme s. LP)

      Metachela Coquillett, 1903: 253, 263 (Hemerodromiinae, Hemerodromiini)
      Lotic-erosional and depositional (also in moss mats at water level, or just above on banks) - sprawlers, burrowers - predators (piercers); most adults are collected by sweep netting riparian vegation, or the use of Malaise traps placed along and across stream (MacDonald 1989: 514).
        Metachela albipes (Walker, 1849: 505 as Hemerodromia) - northern and western; expect in the UP (MacDonald 1989: 514-518, Fig. 8)

      Neoplasta Coquillett, 1895: 392 (Hemerodromiinae, Hemerodromiini)
      Lotic-erosional and depositional (also in moss mats at water level, or just above on banks) - sprawlers, burrowers - predators (piercers)
        Neoplasta deyrupi MacDonald & Turner, 1993: 366 - central-western IN, may be found in s. Lower Peninsula adjacent to Indiana (MacDonald & Turner 1993: 366)
        Neoplasta scapularis (Loew, 1862: 209 as Hemerodromia) - MacDonald and Turner, 1993: 371 (possibly a species complex)

      Oreogeton Schiner, 1860: 53 (Empidinae, tribe incertae sedis)
      Lotic-erosional (moss mats) - sprawlers, burrowers - predators (piercers (Simuliidae, Trichoptera))
        Oreogeton obscurus (Lowe, 1864: 84 as Gloma) - NH-AK, widespread north

      Rhamphomyia Meigen, 1822: 42 (Empidinae, Empidini)
      Lentic-littoral - sprawlers, burrowers
        preliminary list
        Rhamphomyia americana Wiedemann, 1830: 8 - CO-ME, widespread
        Rhamphomyia angustipennis Loew, 1861b: 336 - IL-NH
        Rhamphomyia aperta Loew, 1862b: 199 - IL-ME
        Rhamphomyia basalis Loew, 1864a: 77 - Melander 1965:462
        Rhamphomyia brevis Loew, 1861b: 334 - widespread
        Rhamphomyia compta Coquillett, 1895m: 423 - widespread
        Rhamphomyia debilis Loew, 1861b: 330 - MN, SK-ME
        Rhamphomyia dimidiata Loew, 1861b: 325 - IL, NY
        Rhamphomyia effera Coquillett, 1895m: 427 - CO, MA, RI
        Rhamphomyia falcipedia Chillcott, 1959: 268 - Melander 1965: 463
        Rhamphomyia frontalis Loew, 1862b: 199 - IL, NY
        Rhamphomyia fumosa Loew, 1861b: 327 - UMMZ (Wayne Co.: Detroit, G. Steyskal, 1940)
        Rhamphomyia gilvipilosa Coquillett, 1895m: 434 - IL, QB
        Rhamphomyia gracilis Loew, 1861b: 329 - UMMZ (8/28/1929 record from Higgins Lake coll. George Steyskal, though species is indicated as eastern by Melander 1965)
        Rhamphomyia hirtipes Loew, 1864a: 80 - UMMZ (4/17/1979 record from St. Joseph Co. coll. H. D. Cameron; Oakland Co.: New Hudson, G. Steyskal, 1938)
        Rhamphomyia irregularis Loew, 1864a: 81 - UMMZ (5/12/1929 record from Oakland Co. coll. George Steyskal)
        Rhamphomyia laevigata Loew, 1861b: 325 - MT-QB, expect northern UP
        Rhamphomyia limbata Loew, 1861b: 338 - widespread northern
          (syn.) Megacyttarus argentea Bigot, 1880b: xlvii
        Rhamphomyia longicauda Loew, 1861b: 326 - Melander 1965: 464, UMMZ (Bay Co., Monroe Co., G. Saborowski)
        Rhamphomyia mutabilis Loew, 1862b: 198 - IL, east
        Rhamphomyia nana Loew, 1861b: 341 - widespread
        Rhamphomyia otiosa Coquillett, 1895m: 425 - CO-QB, NJ
        Rhamphomyia phemius Walker, 1849: 500 - ON, widespread northern
        Rhamphomyia piligeronis Coquillett, 1895m: 432 - IL, ON
        Rhamphomyia priapulus Loew, 1861b: 335 - UMMZ (5/19/1979 record from Washtenaw Co. coll. H. D. Cameron, though species is indicated as eastern by Melander 1965)
        Rhamphomyia pulla Loew, 1861b: 330 - UMMZ (Schoolcraft Co.: Floodwood, G. Steyskal, 1918; Washtenaw Co.: First Sister Lake, Ann Arbor, G. Steyskal, 1918)
        Rhamphomyia rustica Loew, 1864a: 79 - UMMZ (Arenac Co. Keweenaw Co. G. Steyskal, though species is indicated as eastern by Melander 1965)
        Rhamphomyia setosa Coquillett, 1895m: 426 - widespread northern
        Rhamphomyia sordida Loew, 1861b: 337 - UMMZ (4/30/1981 record from Washtenaw Co. coll. by H. D. Cameron, though species is indicated as eastern by Melander 1965)
        Rhamphomyia vara Loew, 1861b: 337 - UMMZ (5/29/1918 record from Washtenaw Co. coll. F. M. Gaige)
        Rhamphomyia virgata Coquillett, 1895m: 430 (6/1/1901 record from Washtenaw Co., unknown collector, identified by G. Steyskal)
        Rhamphomyia vittata Loew, 1862b: 197 - UMMZ (7/1/1938 and 6/25/1939 records from Wayne Co. coll. George Steyskal)

      Trichoclinocera Collin, 1941: 237 (Clinocerinae)
      Lotic-erosional - clingers - predators (piercers)
        Trichoclinocera ctenistes (Melander, 1928: 234 as Wiedemannia) - Sinclair 1994: 1025, 1043 (Map 3)
        Trichoclinocera falcata Sinclair, 1994: 1028- ON (Sault Ste. Marie), expect in e. UP (Sinclaiir 1994: 1045 (Mpa 9)
        Trichoclinocera hamifera Melander, 1928: 233 - Sinclair 1994: 1045 (Map 10)
          (syn.) Wiedemannia (Roederella) saltans Vaillant, 1960a: 122
          (syn.) Seguyella saltans (Vaillant); Vaillant, 1960b: 180
        Trichoclinocera longipes (Walker, 1849: 504 as Heleodromia) - Sinclair 1994: 1045 (Map 10)
        Trichoclinocera pectinifemur Sinclair, 1994: 1034 - IN, OH, ON, expect in s. LP (Sinclair 1994: 1044 (Map 8)

    References - Empididae

      Bigot JMF. 1880. Diagnose de trois genres nouveaux de Diptères. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, Ser. 5 (10): xlvi-xlviii.
      Chillcott JG. 1959. Studies on the genus Rhamphomyia Meigen: a revision of the nearctic species of the basalis group of the subgenus Pararhamphomyia Frey (Diptera: Empididae). The Canadian Entomologist 91: 257-275, 28 figs.
      Collin JE. 1941. Some Pipunculidae and Empididae from the Ussuri region on the far eastern border of the U.S.S.R. (Diptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London (B) 10: 218-248.
      Coquillett DW. 1895. Revision of the North American Empididae. A family of two-winged insects. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 18: 387-440.
      Coquillett DW. 1903. The genera of the dipterous family Empididae, with notes and new species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 5: 245-272.
      Coquillett DW. 1910. New genera and species of North American Diptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 12: 124-131.
      Courtney GW, Merritt RW. 2007. Chapter 22. Aquatic Diptera, Part One. Larvae of Aquatic Diptera, pp. 687-771 in Merritt RW, Cummins KW, Berg MB (eds.), An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. 4th Ed. Kendall Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, Iowa. xv + 1158 pp., 39 pls.
      Fallén CF. 1816. Empidiae Sveciae, pp. 17-34. Berlingianis, Lundae [= Lund].
      Haliday AH. 1833. Catalogue of Diptera occurring about Holywood in Downshire. Entomological Magazine, London, 1: 147-180.
      Latreille PA. 1809. Genera crustaceorum et insectorum, secundum ordinem naturalem in familias disposita, iconibus exemplisque plurimis explicata. Vol. 4. Amand Koenig, Parisiis et Argentorat [Paris and Strasbourg]. 399 pp., 4 pls.
      Landry B, Harper PP. 1985. The aquatic dance fly fauna of a subarctic river system in Québec, with the description of a new species of Hemerodromia (Diptera: Empididae). The Canadian Entomologist 117: 1379-1386.
      Loew H. 1860. Diptera americana ab Osten-Sackenio collecta. Wiener Entomologische Monatsschrift 4: 79-84.
      Loew H. 1861. Beschreibung einiger neuer europäischen Dipteren. Wiener Entomologische Monatschrift: 348-353.
      Loew H. 1862. Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria secunda. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 6: 185 -232.
      Loew H. 1864.
      Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria quinta. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 8: 49-104.
      Loew H. 1876. Beschreibungen neuer amerikanischer Dipteren. Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Naturwissenschaft 48: 317-340.
      MacDonald JF. 1989. Review of the nearctic Metachela Coquillett, with description of a new species (Diptera: Empididae; Hemerodromiinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 91(4): 513-522.
      MacDonald JF. 1993. Review of the genus Chelipoda Macquart of America north of Mexico (Diptera: Empididae; Hemerodromiinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 95(3): 327-350.
      MacDonald JF. 1994. Review of the nearctic species of the genus Chelifera Macquart (Diptera: Empididae; Hemerodromiinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 96(2): 236-275.
      MacDonald JF, Turner WJ. 1993. Review of the genus Neoplasta Coquillett of America north of Mexico (Diptera: Empididae; Hemerodromiinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 95(3): 351-376.
      Macquart J. 1823. Monographie des insectes diptères de la famille des empides, observés dans le nord-ouest de la France. Recueil des Travaux de la Société d’Amateurs des Sciences, de l’Agriculture et des Arts à Lille 1822: 137–165.
      Meigen JW. 1803. Versuch einer neuen GattungsEintheilung der europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Magazin für Insektenkunde (Illiger) 2: 259-281. VIEW.
      Meigen JW. 1804. Klassifikazion und Beschreibung der europäischen zweiflügeligen Insecten (Diptera Linn.). Erster Band. Abt.1. xxviii + 152 pp. Abt.11. vi + pp. 153-314. Reichard, Braunschweig.
      Meigen JW. 1822. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Dritter Theil. Schulz-Wundermann, Hamm, pp. 416.
      Meigen JW. 1830. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Sechster Theil. Schulz-Wundermann, Hamm, pp. 401.
      Melander AL. 1902. A monograph of the North American Empididae. Part I. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 28: 195-367.
      Melander AL. 1928 (1927). Diptera, Fam. Empididae, pp.l 1-434 in P. Wytsman (ed.), Genera Insectorum. Volume 185.
      Melander AL. 1947. Synopsis of the Hemerodromiinae (Diptera: Empididae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 55: 237-273.
      Melander AL. 1965. Empididae, pp. 446-481 in Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (eds.), A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
      Say T. 1823. Descriptions of dipterous insects of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia 3: 9-54, 73-104.
      Say T. 1824. Appendix. Part I.-Natural History. 1. Zoology. E. Class Insecta. Pp. 268-378. In Keating, W. H., Major Long's second expedition. Vol. 2, 459 pp., pls. 6-15. Philadelphia.
      Schiner IR. 1860. Vorläufiger Commentar zum dipterologischen Theile der "Fauna austriaca", mit einer näheren Begründung der in derselben aufgenommenen neuen Dipteren-Gattungen. I. Wiener Entomologisches Monatschrift 4: 47-55.
      Sinclair BJ. 1994. Revision of the nearctic species of Trichoclinocera Collin (Diptera: Empididae; Clinocerinae). The Canadian Entomologist 126: 1007-1059.
      Sinclair BJ. 2008. The systematics of New World Clinocera Meigen (Diptera: Empididae: Clinocerinae). NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, viii+245 pp.
      Sinclair BJ, MacDonald JF. 2012. Revision of Dolichocephala of America, north of Mexico (Diptera: Empididae: Clinocerinae). The Canadian Entomologist 144(1): 62-80.
      Vaillant F. 1960a. Quelques Empididae Atalantinae des monts des Appalaches [Dipt.]. Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 65: 117-123.
      Vaillant F. 1960b. Quelques Empididae Atalantinae d'Asie russe [Dipt.]. Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 65: 170-186.
      Walker F. 1849. List of the specimens of Dipterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. Part III. pp. 485-687.
      Wiedemann CRW. 1830. Aussereuropäische zweiflügelige Insekten. Vol. 2, xii + 684 pp, 5 pls. Hamm.
      Zetterstedt JW. 1838. Diptera. Sectio tertia. Dipterologis scandinaviae: amicis et popularibus carissimis. Pp. 477-868 in Insecta Lapponica. L. Voss, Lipsiae [= Leipzig]. vi + 1140 pp.

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    EPHYDRIDAE Zetterstedt, 1837 (Shore flies) (redirect to separate page)

    Aquatic MUSCIDAE Latreille, 1802 (Muscoid flies, House flies)

    A large family of calyptrate flies, muscids are ecologically an important group of decomposers of organic material in terrestrial environments. A number of genera in the subfamily Coenosinae as well as certain species of Phaonia (Phaoniinae, Phaoniini) have become adapted to aquatic environments, the majority of which are obligate predators of other invertebrates. The work by Skidmore (1985) remains an invaluable source of information on morphology, biology and ecology of this large, ecologically diverse group.

      Limnophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 517
        Limnophora discreta Stein, 1897: 204 - UMMZ-Insect Division
        Limnophora narona Walker, 1849: 945 - UMMZ-Insect Division

      Lispe Latreille, 1796: 169
        Lispe albitarsis Stein, 1897: 277, 288 - UMMZ-Insect Division
        Lispe brevipes Aldrich, 1913: 137 - western, but ranges into IN and WI (Snyder 1954: 33)
        Lispe cotidiana Snyder, 1954: 22 - IL, MN, ON, widespread (Snyder 1954: 24)
        Lispe nasoni Stein, 1897: 280 - UMMZ-Insect Division
        Lispe neouliginosa Snyder, 1954: 24 - ON, widespread (CA-ON)(Snyder 1954: 25), expect in northern UP
        Lispe nudifacies Snyder, 1954: 18 - Snyder 1954: 20 (Big Rapids, male, September 7, 1942 (C. W. Sabrosky), USNM; Wexford County, male, August 3, 1944; Manistee County, male, August 11, 1940 (R.R. Dreisbach), in H. C. Huckett collection.)
        Lispe palposa Walker, 1849: 926 - UMMZ-Insect Division; Snyder 1954: 33
          (syn.) Anthomyia similima Walker, 1849: 972
          (syn.) Lispa nigromaculata Stein, 1897: 278
        Lispe sociabilis Loew, 1862: 217 - UMMZ-Insect Division, widespread (Snyder 1954: 39)
        Lispe tentaculata (De Geer, 1776: 86 as Musca) - widespread North America (Snyder 1954: 37)
          (syn.) Eriphia acela Walker, 1849: 962
          (syn.) Lispa consanguinea Loew, in Osten Sacken, 1878: 171

      Lispoides Malloch, 1920: 146
        Lispoides aequifrons (Stein, 1897: 205 as Limnophora) - UMMZ-Insect Division

    References - Muscidae

      Aldrich JM. 1913. The North American species of Lispa (Diptera: Anthomyidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 21: 126-146.
      De Geer C. 1776. Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des insectes. Tome 6. 523 pp., 30 pls. Stockholm.
      Latreille PA. 1796. Précis des caractères génériques des insectes, disposés dans un ordre naturel. Prèvôt, Bordeaux. VIEW.
      Loew H. 1862. Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria secunda. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 6: 185 -232.
      Malloch JR. 1920.
      Descriptions of new North American Antomyiidae (Diptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 46: 133-196, 3 pls.
      Osten Sacken CR. 1878.
      Catalogue of the described Diptera of North America. [Ed. 2]. Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 16(2): 1-276.
      Robineau-Desvoidy JB. 1830. Essai sur les Myodaires. Mémoires présentés par divers savants a l'Académie des Sciences de l'Institut de France et imprimés par son ordre (Ser. 2) 2: 1-813.
      Skidmore P. 1985. The biology of the Muscidae of the world. Dr. J. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht. xiv + 553 pp.
      Snyder FM. 1954. A Review of Nearctic Lispe Latreille (Diptera, Muscidae). American Museum Novitates 1675: 1-40.
      Stein P. 1897. Nordamerikanische Anthomyiden. Beitrag zur Dipterenfauna der Vereinigten Staaten. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 42: 161-288.
      Walker F. 1849. List of the specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part IV, pp. [3] + 689-1172 + [2]. British Museum (Natural History), London. PDF.

    PELECORHYNCHIDAE Enderlein, 1922 (Pelecorhychid snipe flies)

    Older literature placed the genus Glutops in Rhagionidae, but a number of phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data have supported Pelecorhynchidae as a distinct clad from Rhagionidae (Wiegmann et al. 2011), and Teskey's (1970a) placement of Glutops in Pelecorhynichidae. Larvae of Glutops are sprawler burrowers, semi-aquatic, collected in damp margins of swampy areas.

      Glutops Burgess, 1878: 321
        Glutops singularis Burgess, 1878: 322 - eastern (Teskey 1970b: 1178)

    References - Pelecorhynchidae

      Burgess E. 1878. Two interesting American Diptera, Glutops singularis and Epibates osten-sackenii. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History (1876-1878) 19: 320-324, 1 pl.
      Teskey HJ. 1970a. The immature stages and phyletic position of Glutops rossi (Diptera: Pelecorhynchidae). The Canadian Entomologist 102: 1130-1135.
      Teskey HJ. 1970b. A review of the genus Glutops (Diptera: Pelecorhynchidae), with descriptions of four new species. The Canadian Entomologist 102: 1171-1179.

    PHORIDAE Curtis, 1833 (Humpbacked flies)

    Phorids are very small flies that are easily recognized by the small head and prominent pronotum, giving them a humpbacked appearance. Only the veins toward the foremargins of the wings are thickened; the others are weak and are not connected by cross veins. The hind femora are laterally flattened. The larvae are slightly flattened larvae and up to 4 mm long (www.entomology.ucr.edu).

    The definitive work on aquatic Phoridae is by Disney (1991). Two synanthropic cosmopolitan phorids (Dohrniphora cornuta and Megaselia rufipes), associated with decaying organic matter, inhabit trickling sanitation filterbeds, and may be commonly encountered public restrooms and homes (Barnes 1990). Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot), which is probably tropical in origin but has been transported around the world, has been found in the pitcher-plant species Sarracenia flava L. (Disney 1991) and thus may be found in our native S. purpurea L. (Sarraceniaceae). This species is also associated with animal wastes and agriculture (Barnes 1990). Megaselia orestes Borgmeier has also been found breeding in the western pitcher-plant species Darlingtonia californica (Torrey) (Disney 1991), but this is a western plant species and I am unaware of any records of this fly from Michigan. The diversity of phorids in our region is likely greatly under-reported, as the the discovery of many new species as well as their occurence in poorly-studied habitats will undoubtedly increase the number of species in Michigan (e.g., Disney et al. 2009, Hartop et al. 2015).

      Dohrniphora Dahl 1898: 188
        Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot, 1857: 348 as Phora) - cosmopolitan (Schmitz and Beyer 1965: 535)

      Megaselia Rondani, 1856: 137
        Megaselia imitatrix Borgmeier, 1969 - IN, expect in s. LP (Disney et al. 2009)
        Megaselia rufipes (Meigen, 1804: 313 as Trineura) - widespread North America (Schmitz and Beyer 1965: 535)

    References - Phoridae

      Barnes JK. 1990. Life history of Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot)(Diptera: Phoridae), a filth-inhabiting humpbacked fly. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 98(4): 474-483.
      Bigot JMF. 1857. Dipteros, pp. 328-349 [pl. 20 of insects and crustaceans, bound in Vol. 8] in Sagra R, de la, Historia fisica, politica y natural de la Isla de Cuba [q.v.].. Vol. 7, 371 pp. Paris, "1856".
      Borgmeier T. 1966. Revision of the North American phorid flies. Part III. The species of the genus Megaselia, subgenus Megaselia. Studia Entomologica 8: 1–160.
      Borgmeier T. 1969. Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian biological survey of Dominica: The Phoridae of Dominica (Diptera). Smithsonian Contributions Zoology 23: 1–69.
      Dahl F. 1898. Über den Floh und seine Stellung im System. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1898: 185-199, 15 figs.
      Disney RHL. 1991. The aquatic Phoridae (Diptera). Entomologica scandinavica 22:171-191.
      Disney RHL. 2009. The true identity of Copeland's aquatic scuttle fly (Diptera: Phoridae) from Indiana and recognition of a sibling species from Texas. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 111(3): 564-574.
      Hartop EA, Brown BV, Disney RHL. 2015. Opportunity in our ignorance: urban biodiversity study reveals 30 new species and one new nearctic record for Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) in Los Angeles (California, USA). Zootaxa 3941(4): 451-484.
      Meigen JW. 1804. Klassifikazion und Beschreibung der europäischen zweiflügeligen Insecten (Diptera Linn.). Erster Band. Abt.1. xxviii + 152 pp. Abt.11. vi + pp. 153-314. Reichard, Braunschweig.
      Rondani C. 1856. Dipterologiae Italicae prodromus. Vol. 1: Genera Italica ordinis dipterorum ordinatim diposita et distincta et in familias et stirpes aggregata, 228 pp. Parmae [=Parma].
      Schmitz H, Beyer E. 1965. Family Phoridae, pp. 531-546 in Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (eds.), A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.

    SARCOPHAGIDAE Macquart, 1834 - Flesh flies

    This is an overwhelmingly a terrestrial group, but the species of Fletcherimyia Townsend and one species of Sarcophaga Meigen are associated with pitcher plants (Sarracenia). Fletcherimyia larvae are borrowers that mine the bases of pitcher plants, scavaging the trapped remains of drowned invertebrates. Of this principally southeastern genus, one species approaches our area. The taxonomy and ecology of this group were reviewed by Dahlem and Naczi (2006).

      Fletcherimyia Townsend, 1917b: 191 (=Blaesoxipha, in part)
        Fletcherimyia fletcheri (Aldrich, 1916a: 96 as Sarcophaga) - Dahlem and Naczi 2006: 233; OH, ON (Dahlem and Naczi 2006; O'Leary 2014); NJ-MB (Downes 1965: 96)

    References - Sarcophagidae

      Aldrich JM. 1916. Sarcophaga and allies in North America. [Vol. 1], 302 pp., 16 pls., in Entomological Society of America, Thomas Say Foundation [q.v.]. Lafayette, Indiana.
      Dhalem GA, Naczi RFC. 2006. Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) associated with North American pitcher plants (Sarraceniaceae), with descriptions of three new species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99(2): 218-240.
      Downes WL, Jr. 1965. Family Sarcophagidae, pp. 933-961 in Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (eds.), A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
      O'Leary JR. 2014. Population genetic structure in the pitcher plant flesh fly Fletcherimyia fletcheri. MS thesis, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository. Paper 2017.
      Townsend CHT. 1917. Genera of the dipterous tribe Sarcophagini. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 30: 189-197.

    SCATHOPHAGIDAE Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 - Dung flies

    A small family of less than 400 species, this group is almost exclusively Holarctic in distribution. Larvae generally are shredders and burrowers of vascular terrestrial plant material, a number of taxa have adapted to a semi-aquatic environment where they feed on vascular hydrophytes (Keiper et al. 2002). These flies are generally lentic but are also found in depositional zones of lotic systems. Some species are predators of other aquatic insects or aquatic insect eggs deposited at the water surface in swift streams (Zimmerman and Turner 1982; Purcell et al. 2008). Adults are predators of other insects. The common name refers to the breeding habitat of some species of Scathophaga. An excellent survey of the Nearctic group remains Vockeroth 1987, and an excellent on-line resource for the British species is Ball 2014. Some literature references refer to this family as Scatophagidae (i.e., not Scath-), which is preoccupied for a Perciformes family of fish.

    This list is under construction; a survey of Michigan records and material has not yet been done.

      Cordilura Fallén, 1810: 15 - lentic-vascular hydrophytes (emergent zone) - burrowers-miners (plant stems) - shredders-herbivores (miners of Scirpus, Juncus, and Carex), predators (engulfers) of Ceratopogonidae
        Cordilura (Cordilura) angustifrons Loew, 1863a: 24 - MN, WI, east (Vockeroth 1965: 827)
        Cordilura (Cordilura) confusa Loew, 1863a: 23 - MN, widespread northern, expect in UP (Vockeroth 1965: 828)
        Cordilura (Achaetella) deceptiva Malloch, 1923h: 180 - Malloch 1923: 180; WI-QB (Vockeroth 1965: 829)
        Cordilura (Cordilura) gagatina Loew, 1869c: 182 - Vockeroth 1965: 828
        Cordilura (Cordilurina) glabra Loew, 1869c: 180 - ON, WI (Vockeroth 1965: 829)
          (syn.) Parallelomma similata Malloch, 1923h: 178
        Cordilura (Cordilurina) munda Loew, 1869c: 180 - widespread northern to VA (Vockeroth 1965: 830)
        Cordilura (Cordilura) loewi James, 1955b: 88 - Vockeroth 1965: 828
          (syn.) Cordilura flavipes Loew, 1863a: 25 [preocc. Fallén, 1819]
        Cordilura (Cordilura) ontario Curran, 1929e: 132 - MN, ON, widespread northern, expect in UP (Vockeroth 1965: 828)
        Cordilura (Cordilura) praeusta Loew, 1864a: 96 - ON, IA, east (Vockeroth 1965: 828)
        Cordilura (Cordilura) pudica Meigen, 1826: 232 - MN, widespread northern, expect in UP (Vockeroth 1965: 828)
        Cordilura (Cordilura) setosa Loew, 1876: 326 - MN, ON, east and south, (Vockeroth 1965: 828)
        Cordilura (Cordilura) variabilis Loew, 1876: 326 - Vockeroth 1965: 828
        Cordilura (Achaetella) varipes (Walker, 1849: 1046 as Lissa) - OH, WI, AB-ME, GA (Vockeroth 1965: 829)
          (syn.) Cordilura bimaculata Loew, 1860b: 80
          (syn.) Cordilura maculipennis Wulp, 1867: 152
          (nom.nud.) Lissa polita Harris, 1835: 600

      Hydromyza Fallén, 1813: 243 - lentic-vascular hydrophytes (submerged and floating zones) - burrowers-miners (plant stems and roots) - shredders-herbivores (miners in petioles of Nuphar, roots of Potamogeton)
      Orthacheta Becker, 1894: 101- lentic-vascular hydrophytes (emergent zone) - burrowers-miners (plant stems) - predators (engulfers)
      Spaziphora Rondani, 1856: 99 - lentic-littoral (sewage beds in oxidation ponds) - sprawlers - scrapers, collectors-gatherers

    References - Scathophagidae

      Ball SG. 2014. Key to the British Scathophagidae (Diptera). [accessed May 21, 2017].
      Becker T. 1894.
      Dipterologische Studien. I. Scatomyzidae. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 39: 77-196, 1 pl.
      Fallén CF. 1810. Specimen entomologicum novam Diptera disponendi methodum exhibens. 26 pp. + 1 Tafel. Litteris Berlingianis, Lundae [= Lund].
      Fallén CF. 1813. Beskrifning öfver några i Sverige funna vattenflugor (Hydromyzides). Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar, Series 3, 1: 240–257.
      Keiper JB, Walton WE, Foote BA. 2002. Biology and ecology of higher Diptera from freshwater wetlands. Annual Review of Entomology 47 207-232.
      Malloch JR. 1923. The cordylurid genus Paralleloma and its nearest allies (Dipt.). Entomological News 34: 139-140, 175-180.
      Purcell AH, Hoffmann A, Resh VH. 2008. Life history of a dipteran predator (Scathophagidae: Acanthocnema) of insect egg masses in a northern California stream. Freshwater Biology 53(12): 2426-2437.
      Robineau-Desvoidy J B. 1830. Essai sur les Myodaires. Sciences Mathématiques et Physique. Mémoires Présenté par Divers Sanans à l’Academie Royale des Scineces de l’Institute de France, Série 2 2: 1-813.
      Rondani C. 1856. Dipterologiae Italicae Prodromus, Vol. 1: Genera Italica ordinis dipterorum ordinatum disposita et descripta et in familias et strips aggregata. Tipographia Alexandri Stochi, Parmae, 228 pp.
      Vockeroth JR. 1965. Subfamily Scatophaginae, pp. 826-869 in Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (eds.), A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
      Vockeroth JR. 1987. Scathophagidae, pp. 1085-1097 in McAlpine JF, Peterson BV, Shewell GE, Teskey HJ, Vockeroth JR, Wood DM (eds.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Volume 2. Agriculture Canada Monograph 28: 675-1332. Ottawa, Ontario.
      Wallace JB, Neff SE. 1971. Biology and immature stages of the genus Cordilura (Diptera: Scatophagidae) in the eastern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 64(4): 1310-1311.
      Zimmerman RH, Turner EC, Jr. 1982. Cordilura varipes (Scatophagidae), a predator of Culicoides variipennis (Ceratopogonidae). Mosquito News 42(2): 279.

    SCIOMYZIDAE Fallén, 1820 - Marsh Flies (redirect to separate page)

    STRATIOMYIDAE Latreille, 1804 - Soldier Flies (redirect to separate page)

    TABANIDAE Latreille, 1802 - Horse and Deer Flies (redirect to separate page)

Page edits:

    May 21, 2017
    • Updated information for new records, corrected errors in citation and nomenclature, and included reference sections for each individual family
    December 09, 2013
    • Added Rhamphomyia species, preliminary list based on Melander 1965 and UMMZ records
    • Removed Neoplasta scapuliformis (Empididae), as it is western (MacDonald and Turner, 1993)
    • Added Sinclair 2008 reference
    November 21, 2012
    • Beginning to keep track of changes to the web site pages
    • Some families with many species are retained as separate lists (web pages)
    • Removed individual pages for families into one long list, families accessed from left menu via anchor redirects within page

Page created: February 02, 2002; Last edited: June 23, 2017 (EB)