Aquatic Insects of Michigan

by Ethan Bright, Museum of Zoology Insect Division and School of Natural Resources and Environment
University of Michigan

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Aquatic Hymenoptera (Wasps) of Michigan


A number of parasitic wasps (parasitoids) have become adapted to the aquatic existence by attacking various life stages (principally eggs, larvae and/or pupae) of aquatic insect groups, especially those of Heteroptera and holometabolous orders (e.g., Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, etc.).

Genera are denoted in green; species denoted in bold blue have been recorded in Michigan; other species denoted in black bold are likely to occur based on their known distribution. You can use the Find function in your web browser to locate families, genera, and species. Synonomous species (indented) are listed below the current valid species (denoted in bold) with its taxonomic status indicated.

Information regarding the occurrence of aquatic Hymenoptera in Michigan is currently in preparation. Please email the author if you have records or information regarding this group in Michigan. Below is a list of genera parasitize aquatic insects found in Michigan. It is adapted from Bennett (2007, second printing), and with surveying of deposited collection material. Additional information is from Cebulski and O'Brien (2013).

    BRACONIDAE (Ichneumonoidea)

      Ademon Haliday, 1833*: 266 - parasitizes Hydrellia (Diptera: Ephydridae) larvae-pupae

      Asobara Förster, 1862* - parasitizes Parydra (Diptera: Ephydridae) larvae-pupae

      Bracon Fabricius, 1805
        Bracon lutus (=Microbracon) - parasitizes Archanara (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae

      Chaenusa Haliday, 1839
        Chaenusa bergi (Riegel, 1950) Chorebidella (orig.) - parasitizes Hydrellia (Diptera: Ephydridae) eggs-pupae

      Chorebus Haliday, 1839
        Chorebus aquaticus Muesebeck, 1950 - parasitizes Hydrellia (Diptera: Ephydridae) pupae

      Dacnusa Haliday, 1833* - parasitizes Hydrellia (Diptera: Ephydridae) pupae
      Opius Wesmael, 1835: 115
        Opius caesus (spelling?) Haliday, 1837 - parasitizes ephydrids (Hydrellia) larvae-pupae

      Phaenocarpa Förster, 1862
        Phaenocarpa antichaetae Fischer, 1974 - parasitizes Antichaeta (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) pupae

    CHALCIDIDAE (Chalcidoidea)

      Chalcis Dufour, 1834 - parasitizes Odonatomyia, Stratiomys, Hedriodiscus (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)
        Chalcis canadensis (Cresson, 1872) Smicra (orig.) - Cowan 1979
          (comb.) Spilochalcis canadensis (Cresson, 1872)

    DIAPRIIDAE (Proctotrupoidea)

      Diapria Latreille, 1796 - parasitizes Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae)
        Diapria conica (Fabricius, 1775) Ichneumon (orig.) - QB-CO, widespread with Eristalis tenax (Krombein et al. 1979: 1148)
          (syn.) Cynips crassipes Fourcroy, 1785

      Trichopria Ashmead, 1893 - parasitizes Hydrellia (Diptera: Ephydridae), marsh flies Atrichomelina, Dictya, Elgiva, Sepedon (Diptera: Sciomyzidae), and the water penny Psephenus (Coleoptera: Psephenidae) pupae/prepupae
        Trichopria columbiana (Ashmead, 1893) Diapria (orig.) - Krombein et al. 1979: 1146 (parasitizes Hydrellia bergi)
        Trichopria popei (Muesebeck, 1950) Phaenopria (orig.) - Krombein et al. 1979: 1147 (parasitizes Sepedon fuscipennis, Elgiva sundewalli, Atrichomelina pubera, Dictya sp.)
        Trichopria tabanivora Fouts, 1926 - MA-MB, SK (Krombein et al. 1979: 1148 (parasitizes Chrysops mitis, Tabanus reinwardtii, T. nigrovittatus)

    EULOPHIDAE (Chalcidoidea)

      Aprostocetus Westwood, 1833 - hyperparasite in Lestes (Odonata, Zygoptera: Lestidae) and Aeshna tuberculifera (Odonata, Anisoptera: Aeschnidae) eggs
        Aprostocetus nr. polynemae Ashmead, 1900 - hyperparasite of Aeshna tuberculifera (Odonata, Anisoptera: Aeschnidae) eggs (Alger Co. - Cebulski and O'Brien 2013)
        Aprostocetus mymaridis Girault, 1916 - hyperparasite of Aeshna tuberculifera (Odonata, Anisoptera: Aeschnidae) eggs (Alger Co. - Cebulski and O'Brien 2013)

      Mestocharis Förster, 1878 - parasitizes Dytiscus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) eggs

      Tetrastichus Walker, 1842
        Tetrastichus coerulescens Ashmead, 1898 - hyperparasite in, and parasite of, Lestes (Odonata, Zygoptera: Lestidae) eggs
        Tetrastichus polynemae Ashmead, 1900 - hyperparasite in, and parasite of, Aeshna tuberculifera (Odonata, Anisoptera: Aeschnidae) eggs (Alger Co. - Cebulski and O'Brien 2013)

    FITIGIDAE (Cynipoidea)

      Hexacola Förster, 1869 - parasitizes Parydra, Scatella (Diptera: Ephydridae) larvae-pupae
      Kleidotoma Westwood, 1833 - parasitizes Parydra (Diptera: Ephydridae) larvae-pupae
        Kleidotoma parydrae Beardsley, 1992

    ICHNEUMONIDAE (Ichneumonoidea)

      Apsilops Förster, 1868 (=Neostricklandia, =Trichocryptus, =Trichestema) - parasitizes (Occidentalia, Chilo, Schoenobius, Nymphula (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae
        Apsilops bicolor (Cushman, 1927) Trichocryptus (orig.) - MA-AB, MD-CA, widespread (Krombein et al. 1979: 447)
          (syn.) Trichocryptus atlanticus Cushman, 1930
        Apsilops hirtifrons (Ashmead, 1896) Cryptus (orig.) - MA-MN, s. to TX, widespread (Krombein et al. 1979: 447)
          (syn. nom.nud.) Cryptus cyaniventris Riley, 1890
        Apsilops sericata (Viereck, 1925) Neostrictlandia (orig.) - Frohne 1939; Krombein et al. 1979: 447
          (syn.) Trichestema helcostizoides Cushman, 1927

      Bathythrix Förster, 1868 (=Hemiteles) - parasitizes Gyrinus (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) larvae in pupal cases
        Bathythrix triangularis (Cresson, 1868) Mesoleptus (orig.)

      Cremastus Gravenhorst 1829 - parasitizes Occidentalia, Chilo, Nymphula (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae and pupae
        Cremastus bilineatus Cushman, 1917
        Cremastus incompletus (Provancher, 1875) Mesoleptus (orig.)
        Cremastus orbus (Davis 1898) Leptopygus (orig.) - IN

      Medophron Förster, 1869 - parasitizes Agabus, Dytiscus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) pupae

      Mesoleptus Gravenhorst 1829 - parasitizes Antichaeta (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) pupae
        Mesoleptus declivus (Provancher, 1886) Hemiteles (orig.)
        Mesoleptus incompletus (Provancher, 1886) Pyracmon (orig.)

      Oecotelma Townes, 1970(=Hemiteles) - parasitizes Gyrinus (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) larvae in pupal cases

      Phygadeuon Gravenhorst 1829 - parasitizes Antichaeta (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) pupae
        Phygadeuon aciculatus Provancher, 1882

      Townes, 1970
      (=Hemiteles) - parasitizes Gyrinus (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) larvae in pupal cases

      Sulcarius Townes, 1970 - parasitizes Limnephilus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) larvae in cases

      Theroscopus Forster, 1850 (=Eriplanus) - parasitizes Gyrinus (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) larvae in pupal cases

    MYMARIDAE (Chalcidoidea)

      Anagrus Haliday, 1833 - parasitizes Aeshna tuberculifera (Odonata: Aeshnidae) eggs
        Anagrus cf. subfuscus Förster, 1847 - parastizes Aeshna tuberculifera eggs; Alger Co. (Cebulski and O'Brien 2013)

      Caraphractus Walker, 1846 - parasitizes (Notonecta (Heteroptera: Notonectidae), Gerris (Heteroptera: Gerridae), Dytiscus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), and Agabus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) eggs

      Haliday, 1833 - parasitizes Aeshna tuberculifera (Odonata: Aeshnidae) eggs
        Polynema nr. needhami Ashmead, 1999; - parastizes Aeshna tuberculifera eggs; Alger Co. (Cebulski and O'Brien 2013)

    POMPILIDAE (Vespoidea)

      Anoplius Dufour, 1834 - parasitizes Dolomedes triton sexunctatus, D. scriptus, D. striatus, D. tenebrosus (Araenea: Pisauridae) adult spiders
        Anoplius depressipes Banks, 1919 - WI, widespread eastern to ME, s. to TX-FL (Krombein et al. 1979: 1560)

    PTEROMALIDAE (Chalcidoidea)

      Dineuticida Boucek 1993 - parasitizes Gyrinus and Dineutes (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) larvae in pupal cases
        Dineuticida dineutes (Ashmead, 1894) Cyrtogaster (orig.)

      Ruschka, 1914 - parasitizes Sisyra (Neuroptera: Sisyridae) pupae

      Gahan, 1951 - parasitizes Climacia (Neuroptera: Sisyridae) larvae and pupae in cocoons
        Sisyridivora cavigena Gahan, 1951

      Walker, 1846 - parasitizes (Ephydra (Diptera: Ephydridae), Parydra (Diptera: Ephydridae), Hydrellia (Diptera: Ephydridae), Dimecoenia (Diptera: Ephydridae) pupae

    SCELIONIDAE (Proctotrupoidea)

      Pseudanteris Fouts, 1927 - parasitizes Metrobates?
        Pseudanteris insignis Fouts, 1927 - OH, eastern (Krombein et al. 1979: 1157 (record at Ohio State University from Allen Co., Ohio, may be found in southern Michigan)

      Telenomus Haliday, 1833* - parasitizes Tabanus and Chyrsops (Diptera: Tabanidae) eggs
        Telenomus olsenni Johnson, 1984 Phanurus (orig.) - ON, widespread (Krombein et al. 1979: 1168, hosts: Tabanus lineola, T. punctifer, Chrysops aestuans, C. mitis)
          (syn.) Phanurus emersoni Girault, 1916
          (syn.) Telenomus emersoni (Girault, 1916)
        Telenomus tabanivorus (Ashmead, 1895) Phanurus (orig.) - IL, OH, MA-IL and south (Krombein et al. 1979: 1170)
        [note: a third species, Telenomus goniopis Crawford, 1913, parasitizes the non-aquatic tabanid Goniops chrysocoma, is found from MA-AR, and may be found in our area. Krombein et al. 1979: 1168]

      Thoron Haliday, 1833- parasitizes Nepa cinerea (Heteroptera: Nepidae) eggs
        Thoron metallicus Haliday, 1833 - IN, OH, ON (Pt. Pelee) (Johnson and Masner, 2004: 11-13, expect in southern Michigan)
          (comb.) Teleas (Thoron) metallicus Blanchard, 1840
          (syn.) Teleas fornicatus Nees von Esenbeck, 1834
          (syn.) Teleas solidus Nees von Esenbeck, 1834
          (syn.) Thoron gibbus Ruthe, 1859
          (syn.) Anteris nepea Ferričre, 1916

      Tiphodytes (Marchal, 1900) Limnodytes (orig.) - parasitizes Gerris, Trepobates, and Limnoporus (Heteroptera: Gerridae) eggs
        Tiphodytes gerriphagus Marchal, 1900 - Krombein et al. 1979: 1159 (see also Spence, 1986)

    TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE (Chalcidoidea)

      Hydrophylita Ghesquiere, 1946 - parasitizes Ischnura (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) eggs

      Lathromeroidea Girault, 1912 - parasitizes Lestes (Odonata: Lestidae) and Aeshna tuberculifera (Odonata: Aeshnidae) eggs
        multiple species of unknown identity (as Centrobiopsis and Lathromeroidea and have been observed in Aeshna tuberculifera eggs by Cebulski and O'Brien (2013)

      Paracentrobia Howard, 1897 - parasitizes Lestes (Odonata: Lestidae) eggs

      Prestwichia Lubbock, 1864 - parasitizes Nepa (Heteroptera: Nepidae), Ranatra (Heteroptera: Nepidae), and Dytiscus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) eggs

      Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 - parasitizes water mites (Hydracarina), Sialis (Megaloptera: Sialidae), Corydalus (Megaloptera: Corydalidae), Sepedon (Diptera: Sciomyzidae), Elgiva (Diptera: Sciomyzidae), and Tetanocera (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) eggs


      Cebulski BC, O'Brien MF. 2013. Observations on egg parasitism of Aeshna tuberculifera (Odonata: Aeshnidae) by Eulophidae, Trichogrammatidae and Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) in Alger County, Michigan. The Great Lakes Entomologist 46(3-4):145-153.
      Cowan DP. 1979. The function of enlarged hind legs in oviposition and aggression by Chalcis canadensis (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae). The Great Lakes Entomologist 12(1): 133-136.
      Förster A. 1862. Synopsis der Familien und Gattungen der Braconen. Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereines preussischen Rheinlande und Westphalens, 19: 225- 288, 1 pl.
      Frohne WC. 1939. Semiaquatic Hymenoptera in north Michigan lakes. Transactions of the American Microscopy Society 58: 228-240.
      Haliday AH. 1833. An essay on the classification of the parasitic Hymenoptera of Britain which correspond with the Ichneumones Minuti of Linnaeus. The Entomological Magazine 1: 259-276.
      Johnson NF, Masner L. 2004. The Genus Thoron Haliday (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), egg-parasitoids of waterscorpions (Hemiptera: Nepidae), with key to world species. American Museum Novitates 3452:1-16, 4 figs.
      Krombein KV, Hurd PD, Smith DR, Burks BD. 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico (3 volumes). Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, D.C. 2735 pp.
      Spence JR. 1986. Interactions between the scelionid egg parasitoid Tiphodytes gerriphagus (Hymenoptera) and its gerrid hosts (Heteroptera). Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:2728-2738.
      Wesmael C. 1835. Monographie des Braconides de Belgique. Nouveaux Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles 9: 1-252.

Page edits:

    November 05, 2013
    • Updated information for Eulophidae, Mymaridae, and Trichogrammatidae from Celubski and O'Brien 2013
    January 03, 2013
    • Updated information for Diapriidae, Pompilidae, and Scelionidae from Kronbein et al. 1979
    November 04, 2012
    • Beginning to keep track of changes to the web site pages
    • Removed individual pages for families into one long list, families accessed from left menu via anchor redirects within page
Page created: October 29, 2008 - Last updated: April 6, 2024 (EB)